Phrenological bust by LN FowlerPhrenological bust by LN FowlerThe History of Phrenology on the Web

by John van Wyhe

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Ackerknecht, Erwin H., 'Eine phrenologische Walhalla', Image, 4, 1964.

Ackerkneckt, E., and Vallois, H.V., Franz Joseph Gall, Inventor of Phrenology, and his Collection. trans. from Fr. by C. St. Léon... Madison, Wisconsin, (Studies in medical History), 1956. Trans. of François Jospeh Gall et sa collection. Paris, 1955. (Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle). Indispensable starting place for research on Gall. Excellent photos of his collection which remains in Paris (Musée de l'Homme) including a very nice and sympathetic account of Gall's character. He was sincere and clever, and extremely independent. They even provide measurements of his skull! Gall would have approved.

Ackerkneckt, E., 'Contributions of Gall and the phrenologists to knowledge of brain function' in Poynter, F., ed., The History and philosophy of knowledge of the brain and its functions. Oxford, 1958.

Ackerkneckt, E., Medicine at the Paris Hospital 1794-1848. Baltimore, 1967.

Allport, G. W. Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. New York, 1937.

Amante, Dominic. "Response to Psychometric Phrenology Revisited: comments on neuropsychological testing,' J Consult Clin Psychol, 46 (1978), pp. 1491-2.

Aratruc, P. 'Francois-Joseph Gall et sa Collection.' Progr. Med. 84 (Paris, 1956), pp. 40-43.

Aspiz, Harold. Fiction, 23 (1968), pp. 18-27

Azouvi, François, 'La phrénologie comme image anticipée de la psychologie', Revue de Synthèse, 1976, 97, pp. 251-278.

Azouvi, François, 'Psychologie et physiologie en France, 1800-1830', History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 6, 1984, pp. 151-70. For the reception of Gall and his ideas in France.

Bailey, P. and von Bonim, G. 'Evaluation of the Cerebral Cortex: Organ of The Mind.' What's New 198 (1957), pp. 13-19.

Bakan, D. 'The Influence of Phrenology on Early American Psychology.' J. Hist. Behav. Sci. 2 (1966), pp. 200-220.

Bank, Andrew, 'Of "Native Skulls" And "Noble Caucasians": Phrenology In Colonial South Africa', Journal of Southern African Studies, 1996 22(3), pp. 387-403. "First expounded by J. G. Spurzheim in 1815, the idea of racial phrenology or cerebral determinism spread quickly to Scotland and then to the Cape Colony, where liberals in the western area rejected it in favor of environmental arguments and easterners enmeshed in conflict with the Xhosa eagerly embraced it. Dr. Andrew Smith, military doctor and ethnographer on the eastern frontier in the 1820's, incorporated racial phrenology into his writings, and Dr. H. E. Macartney, who entered the Cape in 1829, lectured on phrenology to receptive audiences among the frontiersmen of the eastern Cape during the 1830's. Under its influence, the artist Thomas Baines depicted the Xhosa at mid-century as having handsome bodies, but animal-like skulls. Documentation: Based on records in the Cape Archives, the Pringle Papers, and contemporary newspapers and journals." This writer obviously has some serious facts wrong about the origins of phrenology.

Baxa, Jakob, 'Doktor Galls deutsche Vortragsreise 1805', Hippokrates. Zeitschrift für praktische Heilkunde und für die Einheit der Medizin, 25, 1954, p. 295f.

Bentley, M. 'The Psychological Antecedents of Phrenology.' Psychol. Monogr. 21 (1916), pp. 102-115.

Benton, A. L., & Joynt, R. J., 'Early descriptions of aphasia', Archives of Neurology, 3, 1960, 205-221.

Benton, A. L., 'Contributions to aphasia before Broca', Cortex, 1, 1964, 314-327.

Bett R. 'Franz Gall (1758-1828).' Clin. Excerpts 33 1958), pp. 45-46.

Blankenburg, Martin, 'Seelengespenster: Zur deutschen Rezeption von Physiognomik und Phrenologie im 19. Jahrhundert', Mann, G., Dumont, F., eds., Gehirn - Nerven - Seele: Anatomie und Physiologie im Umfeld S. Th. Soemmerrings. Stuttgart, New York, 1988, pp.211-238. Discusses the early pamphlets etc. reacting to and criticizing Gall.

Blondel, C., La Psycho-Physiologie de Gall, Paris, 1911, 1914.

Boring, E. G. A History of Experimental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, 1950.

Boring, E., 'Phrenology and the Mind-Body Problem' in his A History of experimental Psychology, New York, 1929, pp. 50-60. Says not a word of MBP but takes phrenology quite seriously and tries to indicate what appeared correct and what incorrect in its doctrines.

Borrmann, Norbert, Kunst und Physiognomik: Menschendeutung und Menschendarstellung im Abendland. Cologne, 1994. A beautifully-illustrated art history book with a section on phrenology and its impact on art, including Gall, Carus, and Goethe on Gall.

Bosch Fiol, Esperanca; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; and Rossello i Mir, Jaume, La 'Soziedad Frenolojica Mallorquina' [The Mallorcan Society of Phrenology], Revista de Historia de la Psicologia [Spain] 1991, 12(3-4), pp. 269-279. Abstract: "Analyzes the impact of phrenology on the Spanish island of Majorca by studying a local scientific society, the Soziedad Frenolojica Mallorquina, and its founder, Mariano Cubi." 1840's.

Branch, E. D. The Sentimental Years: 1836-1860. New York, 1934.

Brasher, Thomas L., 'Whitman's Conversion to Phrenology', Walt Whitman Newsletter, 4, 1958, pp. 95-97

Brednow, Walter: 'Wilhelm von Humboldt und die Physiognomik', Clio Medica 4,1969, pp. 33-42.

Brenke, E., 'Ein bislang unbekannter Bericht über den Phrenologen Gall' Thüringisch-Sächsische Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kunst, 12, 1934/5. 67-70. [Gall and Eichendorff].

Brett, Q. S. 'Francis Joseph Gall and the State of Medicine at the end of the 18th Century.' Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 17 (1927), pp. 352-355.

Bromberg, W., 'Some Social Aspects of the History of Psychiatry,' Bull. Hist. tied. 11 (February 1942), pp. 117-132.

Brown, J. W., & Chobor, K. L., 'Phrenological studies of aphasia before Broca: Broca's aphasia or Gall's aphasia?', Brain and Language, 43, 1992, 475-486.

Brown, J., Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 8th ed. 'Francis Joseph Gall'.

Brown, J. W., & Chobor, K. L. 'Phrenological studies of aphasia before Broca: Broca's aphasia or Gall's aphasia?', Brain and Language, 43, 1992, 475-486.

Bruyn, G. W.. The seat of the soul. In Rose, F. C., & Bynum, W. F. eds., Historical aspects of the neurosciences pp. 55-82, New York, 1982.

Buser, Pierre. 'Localisations cérébrales: De la phrénologie à l'imagerie moderne: Esquisse historique des méthodes et des concepts', Les Conférences de la Société Philomathique de Paris 1996, 6: 63-93.

Calcagni, C. and A. Ialongo. 'Traccia di studi frenologici eseguiti nell' Instituto anatomico romano nel secolo XIX,' Ricerchedi Morfolo 'a, 30 (1964), pp. 171-8.

Campe, Rüdiger. 'Bezeichnen, Lokalisieren, Berechnen', Hans-Jürgen Schings ed., Der ganze Mensch: Anthropologie und Literatur im 18. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart, 1994, p.162-186. On physiognomy and cranioscopy in late 18th-century Germany.

Cantor, G.N., 'The Edinburgh Phrenology Debate: 1803-1828', Annals of Science, 32, 1975, pp. 195-212. He presents the debate as an example of "incommensurable world-views" in collision. Cantor identifies six kinds of disagreement: theological, incommensurable world views, anatomy and physiology, methodology.

Cantor, Geoffrey, N., 'A Critique of Shapin's Social Interpretation of the Edinburgh Phrenology Debate', Annals of Science, 33, 1975, pp. 245-256. Answers Shapin's aggressive social explanatory approach with perceptive criticism of taking social determinism too far.

Carlson, E. T. 'The Influence of Phrenology on Early American Psychiatric Thought.' Amer. J. Psychiat. 115 (1958), pp. 535-538.

Carlson, E.T., ed., G. Combe, The Constitution of Man Considered in Relation To External Objects. Delmar, 1974. Has a brief but not entirely reliable introduction.

Carlson, Eric T. 'Amariah Brigham: I. Life and works,' Amer J Psychi, 112 (1956), pp. 831-36.

Carlson, Eric T. 'Amariah Brigham: Psychiatric thought and practice,' Amer J Psychi, 112 (1957), pp. 911-16.

Carlson, Eric T. and Patricia S. Noel. 'Origins of the Word 'Phrenology,'' American Journal of Psychiatry 127 (November 1970), pp. 694-97.

Carnicer, Ramon, 'La Frenologia En Zaragoza' [Phrenology in Saragossa], Suma de estudios en homenaje al Ilmo. Doctor Angel Canellas Lopez (Zaragoza: Facultad de Filosofia y Letras) 1969, pp. 237-248. Abstract: "Sketches the life of Mariano Cubi y Soler (1801-75), who introduced phrenology into Spain.The author gives details on Cubi's campaign to give information on phrenology in Saragossa in 1845, including his vicissitudes, the surrounding circumstances, and the results." 1845.

Carnicer, Ramon. Entre la ciencia y la magic: Mariano Cubi. Barcelona: Seix Barrel S.A. , 1969.

Casarotto, G. 'Giovanni Giuseppe Gall a la Frenologia.' Minerva Med. 51 (Torino, 1960), pp. 454-455.

Chorover, Stephen L. 'The Pacification of the Brain: from Phrenology to Psychosurgery,' in Thomas P. Morley (ed), Current Controversies in Neurosurgery, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1976, pp. 730-67.

Christensen, V., 'Dr. Galls Ophold i Kubenhavn 1805', Hist. Medd. om Köbenhavn 8, 1921, pp. 217-225.

Cimino, Guido, 'La localizzazione della mente nel cervello : dalla frenologia di Gall alle mappe corticali', Resp. sapere A. 44, vol. 183-184 (1992), p.13-27.

Ciocco, A. 'The Historical Background of the Modern Study of Constitution.' Bull. Hist. Med. 4 (1936), pp. 23-38.

Clapton, G. T. 'Lavater, Gall et Baudelaire.' Rev. Lit. Comparée [13] (1933), pp. 259-298, 429-456.

Clapton, G. T.: Lavater, Gall et Baudelaire. In: Revue de Littérature comparée, 1933, pp. 259-298.

Clarke, E. and Dewhurst, K. An Illustrated History of Brain Function. Los Angeles, 1972.

Clarke, Edwin, and C. D. O'Malley. 'Franz Joseph Gall-Johann Caspar Spurzheim,' in their The Human Brain and Spinal Cord. A historical study illustrated by writings from antiquity to the twentieth century, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968, pp. 392-95, 476-80, 825-27.

Clarke, Edwin, and Kenneth Dewhurst. 'The New 'Science' : Phrenology,' in their An Illustrated History of Brain Function, Oxford, Sandford Publications, 1972, pp. 91-98.

Clarke, Edwin, and L. S. Jacyna. Nineteenth-Century Origins of Neuroscientific Concepts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. One of the best English overviews of Gall and phrenology- discerning and based on a wide range of sources. Perhaps the only English work to take advantage of some of the fine Germany historiography that is available.

Codell, Julie F., 'Expression Over Beauty: Facial Expression, Body Language and Circumstantiality in the Paintings of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood,' Victorian Studies, 29, Winter 1986, pp. 255-90.

Codell, Julie F., 'The Dilemma Of The Artist In Millais's Lorenzo And Isabella: Phrenology, The Gaze And The Social Discourse', Art History, 1991 14(1), pp. 51-66. Abstract: John Everett Millais's Lorenzo and Isabella (1848-49), inspired by a Keats poem, uses popular concepts of phrenology to portray the moral superiority of the lovers over Isabella's greedy brothers. The iconography of the work also addresses Millais's (1829-96) familial dynamics and the Royal Academy's attempts to restrict the advancement of younger painters. Pre-Raphaelite themes within the Victorian social context abound." 1840's.

Colbert, Charles, A Measure of Perfection: Phrenology and the Fine Arts in America. Chapel Hill & London, 1997. There is a nice abstract of this book available at: Phrenology and the Fine Arts. (see other sites about phrenology).

Collins, Philip 'The First Science of Mind,' T L S, 25 April 1975, pp. 455-56.

Collins, Philip. 'When Morals Lay in Lumps: the pretensions of phrenology,' The Listener, 90 (16 Aug. 1973), pp. 213-15.

Conradi, M., 'Franz Joseph Gall in Nederland', De Psycholoog, July/August 1995, pp. 320-323. A very useful and detailed account of Gall and phrenology in the Netherlands.

Cooter, R., 'Deploying 'Pseudoscience': then and now', in M Hanen, M. Osler and R.G. Weyant eds, Science, Pseudoscience and Society Waterloo, Ont. 1980. pp.237-72. Draws on his provocation of progress article. Argues his thesis again that whenever you hear pseudoscience, it is from conservative social interests

Cooter, R., 'Phrenology and the British Alienists, ca. 1825-1845' in Andrew Scull ed., Madhouses, Mad-Doctors, and Madmen: The Social History of Psychiatry in the Victorian Era. London, 1981, pp. 58-104; originally published in 1976 in Medical History, 20. Here Cooter pursues the "progress of psychiatry" in the nineteenth century and uses phrenology to say that though bogus, some of it contributed to progress of treating the insane. "Phrenology, I will argue, was probably the single most important, as well as one of the most curious, of these vehicles for the progress of psychiatry in the second quarter of the nineteenth century." "In this inquiry I will be primarily concerned with exposing how and why phrenology between the 1820s and the 1840s came to dominate psychiatric thought".

Cooter, R., Phrenology in the British Isles: An Annotated, Historical Bibliography and Index. Metuchen, N.J., & London, 1989. Beyond all doubt the single most comprehensive bibliography on phrenological sources- though British- also contains an appendix on 20th century secondary works. An awesome piece of scholarship - indispensable.

Cooter, R., 'Phrenology: the provocation of progress.' History of Science 14: pp. 211-234. 1976. An historiographical essay on phrenology as seen from 1976. Valuable and erudite summary.

Cooter, R., 'The Conservatism of "Pseudoscience",' in Patrick Grim, ed., Philosophy of Science and the Occult. New York, 1982, pp. 130-43. Cooter argues in this paper that since the "consolidation and ossification of the capitalist order in the seventeenth century, the label "pseudoscience" (or the appropriate synonym) has played an ideologically conservative and morally prescriptive social role in the interests of that order. Further, I want to suggest that whenever and wherever "pseudoscience" is labelled, restraint is placed upon the creation of reality."

Cooter, R., 'The Politics of Brain: phrenology in Birmingham', in Society for the Social History of Medicine Bulletin, no. 32, 1983, pp.34-6. In this article Cooter argues that interest in phrenology went from nil to great along with "new industrial forms of production".

Cooter, Roger, The Cultural Meaning of Popular Science: Phrenology and the Organization of Consent in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge, 1984. The most comprehensive historical study of phrenology in Britain and even in English.

Corbella, J., and E. Domenech. 'Un Aspecto historico de la caracterologia morfologica: la Escuela de Frenologia catalana,' Reviste de Psiquiatriay Psicologia medics de Europe y America latina, 8 (1968), pp. 452-61.

Corsi, Pietro, ed., The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience. Oxford, 1991. An excellent and beautifully illustrated anthology of thinkers' and artists' work on the brain and central nervous system from the early modern period to the late 20th century. The chapter by Claudio Pogliano (pp.144-203) provides a detailed account of the development of brain research and ideas of mostly French anatomists in the eighteenth century. This really helps put Gall in context and he no longer appears to have come from nowhere (as one might think reading only R.M. Young- who read only in English translation.)

Cosmacini, Giorgio. 'Cattaneo, Gall e la frenologia', Carlo Cattaneo e il Politecnico p. 267-274.

Crabtree, Tom. 'Who Were the Bump-readers?' New Scientist, 96 (1982), pp. 817-9.

Critchley, M. 'Neurology's Debt to F. J. Gall (1758-1828).' Brit. Med. J. 2 (1965), pp. 775-781.

Critchley, M. 'Phrenology in Medicine.' Lancet 2 (1964), pp. 1227,

Critchley, Macdonald 'God and the Brain: medicine's debt to phrenology,' in his The Divine Banquet of the Brain and Other Essays, New York: Raven Press, 1979, pp. 235-53.

Critchley, Macdonald. 'Phrenology in Medicine,' Lancet, 5 Dec, 1964, p. 1227.

Critchley, MacDonald, 'Neurology's Debt to F. J. Gall (1758-1828)', British Medical Journal 2, 1965, pp. 775-781.

Dallenbach, K. 'Phrenology Versus Psychoanalysis.' Amer. J. Psychol. 68 (1955), pp. 511-525.

Dallenbach, Karl M. 'Frenologia Frente a psiconalisis,' Revista de Psicologia general y a hp'cada, 14 (1959), pp. 269-86,V

Davies, John. D., Phrenology: Fad and Science: a nineteenth-century American crusade. New Haven, 1955, Reprinted, Archon Books, 1971. An older history of phrenology in USA..

de Giustino, David, Conquest of Mind: Phrenology and Victorian Social Thought. London, 1975. This book is mostly about educational reform, and about the so-called efforts of phrenologists to bring about such reform. In the end de Giustino has to conclude that the phrenologists did not bring about any educational reforms themselves! Many strategies are claimed to be developed by Spurzheim or British phrenologists which were long before employed by Gall. Nevertheless, a source which should not be ignored based on a close reading of primary sources and often well written. The next book to consult after Cooter.

de Giustino, David. 'Reforming the Commonwealth of Thieves: British Phrenologists and Australia,' Victorian Studies, 15, (1972), pp. 439-461.

Delaunay, Paul, 'De la Physiognomie à la Phrénologie, Histoire et évolution des écoles et des doctrines', Le Progrès médical, #29 (21, 28 July 1928), 1207-11, 1237-41.

Delaunay, Paul. 'De la physiognomie It la phrenologie. Histoire et evolution des ecoles et des doctrines,' Progres Medical, 55 (1928), pp. 1207-11, 1237-51, 1279-90.

Deneke, J.F. Volrad, 'Die Phrenologie als publizistisches Ereignis: Galls Schädellehre in der Tagespublizistik des 19. Jahrhunderts' in Medizinhistorisches Journal, 20, 1985, pp. 83-108. Really the only summary of the history of phrenology in Germany from Gall to the 1860s.

Dodds, W. J. 'On the Localisation of the Functions of the Brain: Being an Historical and Critical Analysis of the Question.' J. Anat. Ph siol. Lond. 12 (1878), pp. 340-363, 454-494, 636-660.

Domenech, Edelmira, 'El Brillo Breve De Una Doctrina Heterodoxa: La Frenologia' [The brief flourishing of an unorthodox doctrine: phrenology]. Historia y Vida [Spain], 1990, 23(269), pp. 101-109. Abstract: 'Discusses the 18th-century pseudoscience of phrenology, the science of determining intelligence through the analysis of the shape of the skull, noting the work of Spanish phrenologist and disciple of Franz Gal, Mariano Cubi." 18c-19c.

Domenech, Edelmira. La frenologia. Analisis historico de una doctrina psicologica organicista. Barcelona: Edita Seminario Pedro Mata, 1977.

Doody, R. S. A reappraisal of localization theory with reference to aphasia. Brain and Language, 44, (1993, pp. 296-326. Riese, W. , Selected papers on the history of aphasia. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1977.

D'Orazio, Ugo. 'Gall e la prima diffusione della frenologia in Italia', Sanità sci. stor N. 2 (1991), p.79-124.

Dorows, W., 'Zur Gall-Biographie', Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, München und Leipzig, 1919 XVIII, 159

East, W. N. The Relation of the Skull and Brain to Crime. Edinburgh, 1928.

Ebstein, E., 'One Hundredth Anniversary of His [Gall's] Death.' Die Medizinische Welt 2 (1928), pp. 1291-1292.

Ebstein, E., 'Franz Joseph Gall im Kampf um seine Lehre: auf Grund unbekannter Briefe an Bertuch usw. sowie im Urtheile seiner Zeitgenossen', Essays on the history of medicine presented to Karl Sudhoff. ed C. Singer, E. Sigerist. London, Zürich, 1924, pp. 269-322. The next most important collection of Gall letters after Neuburger.

Ebstein, E., 'Gall in defense of his theory', Med. Life. 30, 1923, pp. 369-372.

Emblem, D.L., 'The Encyclopedia Britannica and Phrenology,' in his Peter Mark Roget: the Word and the Man, London, 1970, pp. 132-152. Details Roget's article cranioscopy in 1824 (written 1818) EB and also the letters exchange between he and Combe afterwards.

Erickson, Paul A. 'Phrenology and Physical Anthropology: the George Combe Connection,' Curr Anthrop, 18 (1977), pp. 92-93.

Elizabeth Fee, 'Nineteenth-Century Craniology: The Study of the Female Skull', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 53 (1979), pp. 415-33.

Feltes, N. N. 'Phrenology: from Lewes to George Eliot,' Studies in Literary Imagination, 1 (1968), pp. 13-22.

Ferrara, Sergio. 'Dall'"homme sensible" all'uomo corticale : alcune riflessioni epistemologiche sull'opera di Franz Joseph Gall', Cuore e vasi nella evoluzione del pensiero medico p.42-47.

Ferrier, D. The Functions of the Brain. London, 1875.

Fink, Arthur E. 'Phrenology,' in his Causes of Crime. Bio-logical Theories in the United States, 1800-1915. Philadelphia and London: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1938, pp. 1-19.

Firla, Monika (1999), Die Afrikaner-Büsten im Rollettmuseum Baden bei Wien. Eine österreichisch-baden-württembergische Sammlung. Tribus 48, pp. 67-94.

Fischer, Rotraut, et al, Natur nach Mass: Physiognomik zwischen Wissenschaft und Ästhetik. Marburg, 1989.

Flugel, John Carl. 'Phrenology,' in his A Hundred Years of Psychology, 1833-1933, 3rd edn, London: Duckworth & Co, 1969, pp. 31-8.

Froriep, August, 'F. J. Gall an der Entdeckung des Brocaschen Sprachzentrums beteiligt? Mit 1 Textfigur.' Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 5,1911, pp. 293-298.

Fulton, John F. 'The Early Phrenological Societies and Their Journals,' Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 196 (1927), pp. 398-400.

Gardner, E. 'Francis Joseph Gall: Discoverer of the Structure and Functions of the Brain.' Westminster Review. 172 (1909), pp. 194-199.

Gardner, Martin. 'From Bumps to Handwriting,' Fads and Fallacies In the Name of Science. 2nd ed, New York: Dover, 1957, pp. 292-8.

Garnett, R. C. 'E. T. Craig: Communitarian, Educator, Phrenologist,' Vocational Aspect, 15 (1963), pp. 135-150.

Genty, M. 'Claude Bernard as Apprentice in Philosophy; his Notes on a Book by Gall.' Progr. Medical 67 (1929), pp. 36-40.

Gerson, Eliot. 'Phrenology and Changing Attitudes toward Social Reform in Nineteenth-Century America,' Synthesis, the under-graduate journal in the history and philosophy of science [Cambridge, Mass.], 2 (1974), pp. 3-11.

Gerstner, Patsy A. 'The Personality of Jared Potter Kirtland as Revealed by Phrenology,' Bull Cleveland Med Lib Assn, 18 (July 1971), pp. 60-63.

Gieryn, Thomas, 'May the Best Science Win: Competition for the Chair of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh, 1836', pp. 115-182., in his Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line. Chicago & London, 1998. Argues "cartographics depictions of science in reconfigured culturescapes became the rhetorical means to make sense of phrenology and of its implications of diverse audiences in early-nineteenth-century Edinburgh." Does this actually mean anything? Nice account of Sir W. Hamilton. Otherwise disappointing lack of rigour and some inexcusable factual blunders as to names and dates which are correct in the erstwhile secondary literature.

Glezer, I. I. 'Francis Joseph Gall et son Role dans l'Histoire de la Neurologie.' Z. Nevropat. Psihiat. 59 ([Moscow], 1959), pp. 215-221.

Goltz, F. 'Ueber die Moderne Phrenologie.' Deutsch. Rundschau. 45 (1885), pp. 263-283, 361-375.

Goshen, Charles E. 'Psychiatry's Debt to the PseudoSciences: Phrenology,' in his Documentary History of Psychiatry: a source book on historical principles, London: Vision, 1967, pp. 527-579.

Gould, Steven J. 'Measuring Heads: Paul Broca and the Heyday of Craniology'; and 'American Polygeny and Craniometry before Darwin,' in his The Mismeasure of Man, New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1981, pp. 30-72, 73-112.

Gräffer, Franz: Zu F. J. Gall. In: Kleine Wiener Memoiren und Wiener Dosenstücke. In Auswahl hrsg. von Anton Schlosser u. Mitw. v. Gustav Gugitz, Bd, 1. München 1918, S.194.

Granjel, Luis S. La frenologia en Espana (vida y obra de Mirano Cubi). Cuadernos de Historia de la Medicina Espanola. Monografino 24. Salamanca: Inst de Historia de la Medicina Espanola, 1973.

Granjel, Luis S., La frenologia en España. Cuadernos de historia de la medicina Española. Monogr. XXIV. Salamanca, 1973.

Grant, Alastair Cameron, 'New Light On An Old View: Combe's Phrenology And Robert Owen', Journal of the History of Ideas, 1968, 29(2), pp. 293-301. Abstract: States that phrenology in the early 19th century enjoyed an extraordinary popularity. George Combe, an Edinburgh lawyer, in his Essays of Phrenology (1819), did more than anyone to bring the new 'science' to the Anglo-American peoples. Subsequently Combe exhibited much interest in Robert Owen's educational theories but engaged in some controversy with Owen on "the role of education as the agent of individual and social change." Although Owen was more radical than Combe, Owenism was one of the influences which provided Combe with the "more elaborate social philosophy" he was seeking beyond his phrenology.

Grant, Alastair Cameron, 'Combe on Phrenology and Free Will: A Note on XIXth-Century Secularism,' J Hist Ideas, 26 (1965), pp. 141-147.

Grant, Alastair Cameron, 'George Combe and American Slavery,' J Negro Hist, 45 (1960), pp. 259-69.

Grant, Alastair Cameron, 'George Combe and the 1836 Election for the Edinburgh University Chair of Logic,' -The Book of the Old Edinburgh Club, 32 (1966), pp. 174-184.

Greenblatt, Samuel H. M.D. 'Phrenology in the Science and Culture of the Nineteenth Century.' Neurosurgery 37 (October 1995), pp. 790-805.

Gribben, Alan. 'Mark Twain, Phrenology and the 'Temperaments': A Study of Psuedoscientific Influence.' American Quarterly 24 (March, 1972), pp. 45-68.

Groß, G, 'Die Phrenologie des Dr. Johann Kaspar Spurzheim', Kurtrierisches Jahrbuch, 17, 1977, pp. 35-52. Excellent biographical material on Spurzheim.

Guerrino, Antonia Alberto. 'La teoria frenologica de Gall.' Pagine di storia della medicina, 12 (1968), pp. 17-28.

Hagner, Michael, 'Aufklärung über des Menschenhirn: Neue Wege der Neuroanatomie im späten 18. Jahrhundert', Hans-Jürgen Schings ed., Der ganze Mensch: Anthropologie und Literatur im 18. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart, 1994, pp.145-161.

Hagner, Michael, Geniale Gehirne: Zur Geschichte der Elitegehirnforschung. Göttingen, Wallstein, 2004.

Hagner, Michael, Homo cerebralis: Der Wandel vom Seelenorgan zum Gehirn. Berlin, 1997.

Hagner, Michael. 'The soul and the brain between anatomy and 'Naturphilosophie' in the early 19th century', Medical History 1992, 26: 1-33.

Hagner, Michael (1999), Prolegomena to a history of radical brains in the nineteenth century: physiognomies, phrenology, brain anatomy. Physis 36, pp. 321-338.

Hagner, Michael (2002), Cyber-Phrenologie. Die neue Physiognomik des Geistes und ihre Ursprünge, in Die Politik der Maschine, hg. v. Klaus Peter Dencker, (= Interface 5). Hamburg, Verlag Hans-Brednow-Institut, pp. 182-197.

Hagner, Michael (2003), Skulls, Brains, and Memorial Culture: On Cerebral Biographies of Scientists in the Nineteenth Century. Science in Context 16, pp. 195-218.

Haldi, J. 'Chronicles, Cerebral Localization of Psychic Functions--an Historical and Critical Survey.' New Scholas. 2 (1928), pp. 367-381.

Hall, J.Y., 'Gall's phrenology: A romantic psychology', Studies in Romanticism, 1977, 16, pp. 305-317. This is an excellent summary of phrenology as psychology (though I think the ascription of the word 'romanticism' to phrenology is rather dubious).

Haller, J. S., Jr. 'Concepts of Race Inferiority in Nineteenth Century Anthropology.' J. Hist. Med. All. Sci. 25 (1970), pp. 40-51.

Harrington, Anne. Medicine, Mind, and the Double Brain: a study in Nineteenth-Century Thought. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Harris, Lauren Julius, 'A Young Man's Critique Of An "Outre Science": Charles Tennyson's "Phrenology" (1827) With Commentary And Annotations', Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 1997 52(4), pp. 485-497. Abstract: "Briefly chronicles the medical and artistic communities' interest in the controversial theory of phrenology, a pseudoscience that attempted to define character from the shape and raised surfaces of a person's head, developed by Austrian physician Franz Joseph Gall and publicized by his disciple, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim. Although phrenology gained some supporters, British critics questioned its scientific, moral, and religious foundations. In verse form, Charles Tennyson (1808-79), older brother of Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-92), wrote an antiphrenology poem, Phrenology, and includedit in a respected collection of 107 other poems entitled Poems by Two Brothers (1827) that attacked the methodology employed by phrenologists and questioned the validity of searching for answers to the mystery of the human mind." Based on the printed copy of Phrenology, with four footnotes by Charles Tennyson and annotated by the reviewer, and secondary sources.

Harris, Marvin. 'Raciology, Phrenology and the Cephalic Index,' in his The Rise of Anthropological Theory. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1968, p. 99.

Harvey, Nigel. 'Phrenology,' Listener, 90 (30 Aug 1973), p. 283. (John Stuart Mill and phrenology.)

Hartley, Lucy, Physiognomy and the Meaning of Expression in Nineteenth-Century Culture, Cambridge, 2000.

Hearnshaw, L. S. 'Mesmerism and Phrenology,' in his A Short History of British Psychology, 1840-1940, London: Methuen, 1964, pp. 15-19.

Heiningen, Teun, van, 'De Receptie van de Hersen-schedelleer van Franz Joseph Gall in Holland Kort na 1800'. Gewina: Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde Natuurwetenschappen Wiskunde en Techniek, 1997, 20, 3, pp. 113-128. Probably the best recent overview in Dutch.

Heintel, Brigitte, Franz Joseph Gall: Bibliographie. Stuttgart/Scheufele, 1985. This is a very complete bibliography of works by Gall but not about him.

Heintel, Helmut, "Meine Addreße: à M. Spurzheim chez Mr Gall à Paris": Briefe Johann Kaspar Spurzheims an Johann Paulin Palmatius Coupette', Mann, G., Dumont, F., eds., Gehirn - Nerven - Seele: Anatomie und Physiologie im Umfeld S. Th. Soemmerrings. Stuttgart, New York, 1988, pp.175-182. On Spurzheim in the early days with Gall. Invaluable extracts from Spurzheim's early letters now in the Stadtbibliothek Trier.

Heintel, Helmut, 'Pränumeration auf ein Gallsches Werk', Medizinhistorisches Journal, 1986, 21, pp. 353-355. About a printed form pertaining to Gall's abortive multi vol work form Vienna.

Hellen, Eduard von der : Goethes Anteil an Lavaters Physiognomischen Fragmenten. Frankfurt a.M. 1888.

Hering, Daniel W. 'Phrenology, in his Foibles and Fallacies of Science. London: Routledge, 1924, pp. 152-7.

Herrick, C. Judson. 'Error in Neurophysiology,' in Joseph Jastrow (ed), The Story of Human Error, New York/London: D. Appleton- Century, 1936, pp. 251-67.

Hillway, Tyrus. 'Melville's Use of Two Pseudo-Sciences,' Mod Lang Notes, 64 (1949), pp. 145-50.

Hilts, Victor L. 'Obeying the Laws of Hereditary Descent: Phrenological Views on Inheritance and Eugenics.' Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences (January 1982), pp. 62-77.

Hirzel, Ludwig: Goethes Anteil an Lavaters Physiognomik. In: Zeitschrift für Deutsches Alterthum und Deutsche Literatur 21, NF 9, 1877, pp. 254-258.

Hodgkin, J. Eliot. 'Phrenology in the Sixteenth Century,' Notes & Queries, 8th ser. 5 (24 March 1894), pp. 224-5.

Hodson, Derek and Bob Prophet. 'A Bumpy Start to Science Education,' New Scientist, 14 Aug. 1986, pp. 25-8.

Hoeven, J. van der. 'Caricatures and Prints Concerning Gall and his Theory.' Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 74 (December, 1930), pp. 5922-5927: 922-5927

Hoff, T.L., 'Gall's psychophysiological concept of function: The rise and decline of 'internal essence'', Brain and Cognition, 20, 1992, pp. 378-98.

Hollander, B. In Search of the Soul and the Mechanism of Thought. Emotion, and Conduct. 2 vols. London 1920

Hollander, B., 'Herbert Spencer as a Phrenologist.' Westm. Rev. 139 (February, 1893), pp. 142-154.

Hollander, B., 'In Commemoration of Francis Joseph Gall (1758-1828).' Ethol. J. 13 (1928), pp. 51-64.

Hollander, B., 'McDougall's Social Psychology Anticipated by One hundred Years: A Contribution to the History of Philosophy.' Ethol. J. 9 (1924), pp. 1-20.

Hollander, B., 'What is the use of the brain?' Westm. Rev. (January, 1906), pp. 63-70; and in Eclectic Mag. 146 (March, 1906), pp. 213-218.

Hollander, B., 'Zu Galls 100. Todestag Am 22. August.' Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 75 (1928), pp. . q .v ' The Centenary of Francis Joseph Gall, 1758-1828,' Med. Press; 26 (1928), pp. 7-10. q.v., Med. Life 35 (1928), pp. 373-380.

Hollander, B., Mental Symptoms of Brain Disease. [London?], 1910.

Hollander, Bernard, The Unknown Life and Works of Dr. F.J.Gall, 1909.

Horine, E. F., Biographical Sketch and Guide to the Writings of Charles Caldwell, M.D. (1772-1853) With Sections on "phrenology" and "Hypnotism". Brooks, Ky., 1960.

Hungerford, Edward: Poe and Phrenology. In: American Literature 2, 1961, pp. 209-231 (Reprint of 1930/1931).

Hungerford, Edward: Walt Whitman and his Chart of Bumps. In: American Literature 2, 1961, pp. 350-384 (Reprint of1930/1931).

Inkster, I., 'A Phase in Middle Class Culture: Phrenology in Sheffield, 1824-1850,' Transactions of the Hunter Archaeological Society, 10, 1977, pp. 273-79. -Inkster places phrenology in a context of growing provincial (industrial) areas and also of increasing activity such as lectures of all kinds, he sinks phrenology in a context of political relevance. "The system had passed through the phase were it was interpreted and taken up within the framework of a socially conscious middle class philosophy, and henceforth, moved into the realm of a dissociated 'entertainment'. As such it was doomed as a serious subject of study at the provincial level, as it was no longer seen to be related closely to an explicit system or group of social values. In short, it could no more be considered as a phase in middle class culture."

Jack, Ian. 'Physiognomy, Phrenology and Characterisation in the Novels of Charlotte Bronte,' Bronte Soc Trans, 15 (1970) , pp. 377-391.

Jacobs, Robert D., Poe: Journalist and Critic, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969, pp. 138-50.

Jastrow, J. 'Relation of Phrenology to the Study of Character.' Sci. Am. Supplement 80 (1915), pp. 354-355.

Jastrow, J. 'The Antecedents of the Study of Character and --Temperament.' Pop. Sci. Monthly 86 (1915), pp. 590-613.

Jastrow, J., 'The Skull Science of Dr. Gall' in his Wish and Wisdom: Episodes in the Vagaries of Belief, New York and London, 1935, pp. 289-303. -totally inaccurate chronology and details on Gall -not only provides no correct information but adds an opinionated diatribe.

Jastrow, Joseph 'The Modern Occult: VI Astrology, Phrenology,etc.,' in his Fact and Fable in Psychology, London: pp. 18-24. (First published in Pop Sci Mon, Sept. 1900)

Jefferson, Geoffrey. 'Variations on a Neurological Theme-Cortical Localization,' B M J, 10 Dec, 1955, pp. 1405-8. Reprinted in Selected Papers, ibid, pp. 35-44.

Jefferson, Geoffrey. 'The Contemporary Reaction to Phrenology,' in his Selected Papers, London: Pitman Medical, 1960, pp. 94-112.

Jerison, Harry J., 'Should phrenology be rediscovered?', Current Anthropology, 1977, 18: 744-746.

Johnson, Maurice L. 'George Eliot and George Combe,' Westminster Rev, 166 (1906), pp. 557-568.

Joynt, Robert J., 'Phrenology in New York State,' New York State Journal of Medicine 73, no.13 (1973), pp. 2382-2384.

Kassler, Jamie Cray. 'Spurzheim,' in her The Science of Music in Britain, 1714-1850: a catalogue of writings, lectures and inventions, New York and London: Garland, 1979, vol. 2, pp. 962-967.

Kaufman, M.H. & Basden, N., 'Items relating to Dr Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) in the Henderson Trust Collection, formerly the museum collection of the Phrenological Society of Edinburgh: with an abbreviated iconography', Journal of Neurolinguistics 9, 1996, pp. 301-325.

Kaufman, M.H. & McNeil, R., Death masks and life masks at Edinburgh University. British Medical Journal, 298, 1989, pp. 506-507.

Kaufman, M.H. & Shaw, J.P., Some interesting portraits from the history of phrenology which were probably used to illustrate lectures on physiognomy. Journal of Neurolinguistics 8, 1994, pp. 295-305.

Kaufman, M.H., & Walker, E.M., Shaw, J.P., 'Andrew Combe (1797-1847: Edinburgh Physician and Phrenologist', Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 25, 1995, 652-662.

Kaufman, M.H., and Basden, N., 'Marked Phrenological Heads: Their Evolution, with Particular reference to the influence of George Combe and the Phrenological Society of Edinburgh', in Journal of the History of Collections. 9, no. 1, (1997) pp.139-159. Mostly for collecting and dating casts and busts -they elaborate how dating can be done by the numbering system- less organs the earlier etc.

Kaufman, M.H., 'Circumstances surrounding the examination of the skull and brain of George Combe (1788-1858) advocate of phrenology', Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 25, 1995, pp. 663-674. Utilizes a new documents recently discovered in the archives of the Edinburgh Anatomy Dept.

Kaufman, M.H., 'Phrenology - Confrontation between Spurzheim and Gordon - 1816', Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 29, 1999, pp. 159-170. -makes use of the Spurzheim letters in Boston.

Kaufman, M.H., 'The Edinburgh phrenological debate of 1823 held in the Royal Medical Society', Journal of Neurolinguistics, 11, 1998, 377-389. Surmises Andrew was not too sick to read his paper but too afraid to be David against the Goliath of whole society being against him.

Käuser, Andreas, ''Die Art, das Innere aus dem Äusseren des Menschen zu erkennen' (Kant) Physiognomik und Literaturgeschichte zwischen 1800 und 1900', Zeitschrift für Deutsche Philologie, 1994, 113, pp. 515-542. Analyses how the physiognomical systems showing interior from exterior develops into the physiognomic idea of language, then the history of both ideas between 18th and 20th centuries is traced in some selected texts.

Kleinman, L. C. and McHenry, L. C., Jr. 'Fragments of Neurologic History: phrenology's founders look at the spinal cord,' Neurology [ICY.], 34, (1984), p. 505.

Klinckowström, C. v., 'Zur Gall-Biographie', Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, München und Leipzig,20, 1921 pp. 286-287.

Klinger, M. 'Zur Cerebralen Lokalisationslehre. Geschichte einer Hypothese.' Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 97 ([Basel], June, 1967), pp. 725-731.

Knight, David, The age of science: The scientific world-view in the nineteenth century. 1986. chapter 5 Arguing with sceptics.

Knott , J. 'Franz Joseph Gall and Phrenology.' Westin. Rev. 166 (August, 1906), pp. 150-163.

Krow-Lucal, Martha G.: 'Balzac, Galdós and Phrenology', Anales Galdosianos 18 (1983). Kingston/Canada, pp. 7-14.

Lachman, Ernest. 'Anatomist of Infamy: August Hirt,' Bull His Med, 51 (1977), pp. 594-602. (Hirt [1898-1946] Nazi with phrenological/anthropological motivations)

Laird, Robert C. 'Tennyson and 'The Bar of Michael Angelo': a possible source for In Memoriam LXXXVII.40,' Victorian Poetry, 14 (1976), pp. 253-5.

Lanteri-Laura, Georges, Histoire de la phrénologie. L'homme et son cerveau selon F. J. Gall. Paris, 1970. 2e édition mise à jour. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, 1993.

Laycock, T., 'Phrenology,' Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 7th ed. .

Le May, Marjorie. 'Asymmetries of the Skull and handedness: phrenology revisited,' J Neurol Sci, 32 (1977), pp. 243-53.

Leahey, Thomas Hardy. Psychology's Occult Doubles. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1983. (Chapts 3 and 4 on phrenology)

Lebrun, Yvan. 'La dominance hémisphérique pour le langage: Aperçu historique / Yvan Lebrun, Chantal Leleux.' Historiographia Linguistica 1979, 6: 295-308.

Legée, Georgette, 'Les résultats de P. Flourens sur les fonctions du cerveau, jugés par F.J. Gall, J. Bouillaud, et D. Ferrier', Histoire et Nature: Cahiers de l'Association pour l'Histoire des Sciences de la Nature 1977, 11: 45-58.

Legée, Georgette. 'Physiologie et phrenologie au temps du physiologiste Pierre Flourens,' 27th International Congress for the History of Medicine, Barcelona, 1980. Actas. 1981, vol. 1, pp. 91-7.

Leibbrand, Werner, 'Was an Franz Joseph Galls Lehre ist romantisch?', Wilhelm Hausenstein ed., Max Picard zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, Erlenbach-Zürich, 1958.

Lesky, E., 'Der angeklagte Gall', Gesnerus: Revue Trimestrielle publiée par la Société d'Histoire de la Médecine et des Sciences Naturelles, 38, 1981, pp. 301-311. "In 1801, the Emperor Francis II forbade Gall's lectures and doctrine. This paper attempts to analyse this interdiction on the basis of archival materials."

Lesky, E., Franz Joseph Gall 1758-1828: Naturforscher und Anthropologe. Stuttgart, 1979. (Hubers Klassiker der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, Bd. 15). A useful collection of reprinted and sometimes translated excerpts from Gall's writings with scholarly introductions and notes.

Lesky, E., 'Gall Anherr der Wiener Pyschiatrie', Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 79, 1967, pp. 912-15. She argues, convincingly, that certain factors in Vienna enabled Gall to come up with his theory.

Lesky, E., 'Structure and function in Gall', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 44, 1970, pp. 297-314.

Lesky, Erna, 'Gall und Herder', Clio Medica, 2, 1967, pp. 85-96.

Letang, J. Gall et son Oeuvre. Paris, 1906.

Lewis, W. David. From Newgate to Dannemora. The Rise of the Penitentiary in New York, 1796-1848. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965. (pp. 232-250 on phrenology and 19thcentury penology in New York, especially Eliza W. Farnham at Sing Sing, 1844-8.)

Liepmann, H. 'Franz Joseph Gall.' Deutsche Med. Wschr. 35 (1906), pp. 979-980.

Lindroth, Sten. 'Frenologens Hamnd. Gustaf Magnus Schwartz om Berzelius,' Lychnos, [Year book] (1973-4), pp. 235-9.

Lombroso, Cesare: Genie und Irrsinn in ihren Beziehungen zum Gesetz, zur Kritik und zur Geschichte. Mit Bewilligung des Verf, nach der 4. Aufl. des italienischen Originaltextes übersetzt von A. Courth. Leipzig, 1887.

Lynch, Michael, ''Here is Adhesiveness": from friendship to homosexuality', Victorian Studies. 29, pp.67-96. 1985. This is on phrenology and homosexuality -some phrenologists thought homosexuality from over development of organ of Adhesiveness. Interestingly suggests that Spurzheim may have been homosexual. This is a subject which deserves further research and Lynch's article is an excellent place to begin.

Mackay, C., 'George Combe' in Forty Years Recollections. vol.2 London, 1877. Useful observations and reminiscences.

Magoun, H. W. 'Development of Ideas Relating the Mind with the Brain.' In C. M. Brooks and Paul Cranefield (eds), The Historical Development of Physiological Thought, New York: Hafner, 1959, pp. 81-108.

Mann, G., Dumont, F., eds., Gehirn - Nerven - Seele: Anatomie und Physiologie im Umfeld S. Th. Soemmerrings. Stuttgart, New York, 1988. Contains several independent chapters of relevance to Gall which are listed by author.

Mann, G., 'Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) und Samuel Thomas Soemmering; Kranioskopie und Gehirnforschung zur Goethezeit', in Gunter Mann & Franz Dumont, eds., Samuel Thomas Soemmering und die Gelehrten der Goethezeit. Stuttgart, New York, 1983, pp. 149-189. -good section on Galls doctrine and firsts and contributions to knowledge of neuroscience. -long extracts from Soemmering's diary about Gall & Spurzheim's visit to Munich.

Mann, Gunter, 'Franz Joseph Galls kranioskopische Reise durch Europa (1805-1807). Fundierung und Rechtfertigung neuer Wissenschaft.', Nachrichtenblatt der deutschen Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Medizin Naturwissenschaft und Technik. 34, 1984, 86-114. Nice though brief account of Gall's lecture tour. The only publication devoted exclusively to the tour.

Mann, Gunter, 'Franz Joseph Galls Natur- und Geisteslehre des Menschen und der Völkerschaften (Lehre von den "Nationalschädeln")', G. Mann & F. Dumont eds., Die Nature des Menschen: Probleme der Physischen Anthropologie und Rassenkunde (1750-1850). Stuttgart, New York, 1990, pp. 301-323.

Mann, Gunter, Grus, Stefan, 'Ein Falsifikat der Goethezeit. Franz Joseph Gall kontra Ignatz Cajetan Theodor Fedinand Arnold', Medizinhistorisches Journal, 1988, 23, pp. 123-131. They show that the pamphlet claiming to be by Gall about his lecture tour was in fact by Arnold.

Mann, L. 'Psychometric Phrenology and the new faculty psychology: the case against ability assessment and training,' J Spec Educ, 5 (1971), pp. 3-14.

Marshall, John C. 'Phrenology Revived [i.e. Chomsky] the Concept of Mental Organs.' Paper delivered to the Annual Conference of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science, Essex, 19 Sept. 1981.

Marx, O. 'Aphasia Studies and Language Theory in the 19th Century.' Bull. Hist. Ned. 40 (1966), pp. 328-349.

Mauskopf, S.H., 'Marginal Science', in R.C. Olby, G.N. Cantor, J.R.R. Christie, and M.J.S. Hodge eds., Companion to the History of Modern Science. London, 1996, pp.869-885. -this is really just a textbook "the 1970s and 1980s have witnessed a comparable interest in phrenology. ...Although judicious analyses and evaluations of phrenology had been written earlier by historians of medicine, recent exploration of phrenology's scientific and cultural significance began with the publication in 1970 of Robert M. Young's Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century. Young focused on phrenology's scientific import: its patrimony in the development of localisation of brain function and in the systematic study of human and animal behaviour. His approach was close to that of the historians of Naturphilosophie: rehabilitative in demonstrating phrenology's scientific significance yet critical of its methodology and its theory. Led in part by Young himself, a veritable research industry devoted to phrenology had emerged by the mid-1970s. Interest shifted from the scientific to the socio-cultural context: phrenology as popular science and social movement, especially in Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Regarding the evaluation of phrenology vis-à-vis the demarcation issue, some of the literature is overtly and even aggressively 'social'. In so far as its authors subscribe to the view that scientific knowledge is socially and culturally determined, they view the conflict between phrenology and its critics relativistically, with phrenology receiving a sympathetic evaluation and the scientific objectivity of the critics being dismissed as illusory. The historiography of phrenology has exhibited what is perhaps the clearest and most coherent development of any literature on marginal science, moving over time form a rehabilitative effort initially couched in terms of the contribution of phrenology to neuro-anatomical development to a much more social and relativistic orientation. In is development, this literature has reflected the more general shifts of interest and orientation in history of science over the past forty years."

McCandless, Peter, 'Mesmerism and Phrenology in Antebellum Charleston: Enough of the Marvellous,' The Journal of Southern History 58, no.2 (1992) 199-230.

McCord, Carey P. 'Bumps and Dents in the Skull. Phrenology as an Occupation in America,' Archives for Environmental Health, 19 (1969), pp. 224-29.

McDonald, W. U. 'Notes to Hazlitt's Writings Against the Phrenologists,' Notes & Queries, 205 (1960), pp. 263-4.

McDonald, W. U. 'Scottish Phrenologists and Scott's novels,' Notes & Queries, 207 (1962), pp. 415-17.

McFie, John. 'Recent Advances in Phrenology,' Lancet, 12 Aug. 1961, pp. 360-3.

McIntyre, James Lewis. 'Phrenology,' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, vol 9 (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1917), pp. 897- 900.

McLaren, A., 'a Prehistory Of The Social Sciences: Phrenology In France.' Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1981 23(1), pp. 3-22. -social contextualizes phrenology in France. Much on Gall.

McLaren, A., 'Phrenology: medium and message', Journal of Modern History, 46, 1974, pp. 86-97. "The purpose of this paper is to advance the proposition that phrenology, in addition to bemusing the masses, played an important role as a medium by which the ideas of one age and class were transmitted to another. It will be shown how the lecturer on phrenology garbed the simple concepts of eighteenth-century naturalism in a bizarre and entertaining form designed to win the attention and interest of the English artisan. The aim of this essay is therefore not so much to place phrenology in the history of psychology or philosophy but to gauge its influence on the Victorian lower classes' acceptance of radicalism and free thought."

Mellor, Anna Kostelanletz. 'Physiognomy, phrenology and Blake's visionary heads,' in R. N. Essick and D. R. Pearce (eds), Blake in his Time, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978, pp. 53-74.

Mesdag, S., van, 'Een criminologische bijdrage van het Jaar 1819. Ontleend aan het Dagboek-Reisjournal van C.B Tilanus. Beschrijvende de reis van J.C. Broers, P.J.I de Fremery en C.B. Tilanus', Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht, 37, 1927, pp. 189-209.

Meyer, A. Historical Aspects of Cerebral Anatomy. New York, 1971.

Miraglia, Biagio. 'Un grande frenologo Italiano.' Bollettino dell' Istituto storicoitaliano dell'arto sanitaria, 9 (1929), pp. 217-43.

Miraglia, Biagio. 'Alcuni crani di famosi delinquenti giustiziati in Napoli nell 800 stiudiati da uno scienziato.' Atti a memorie dell' Accademia di storia dell'arte sanitaria, ser. 2, 19 (1953), pp. 192-4.

Miraglia, Biagio. 'Giovanni Antonio Fossati frenologo italiano,' Bollettino dell'Instituto storico italiano dell'arte sanitaria, 11 (1931), pp. 65-106. Gall's friend Fossati.

Mora, G. 'Biagio Miraglia and the Development of Psychiatry in Naples in the Eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries.' J. Hist. Med. All. Sci. 13 (1958);504-523.

Morabito, Carmela, 'Mente e cervello nel pensiero di Gall, fra Illuminismo e Romanticismo', Rivista di Storia della Scienza 1994, 2(1), pp. 15-49.

Morin, G., 'Gall et Goethe: Goethe Disciple de Gall.' Paris Med. Partie Paramed. 72 (1929), pp. 425-432.

Morin, G., 'Le Systeme de Gall et la Psycho-physiologie.' His Med. Partie Paramed. 72 (1929), pp. 83-87.

Morin, G., 'Les Ennemis de Phrenologie.' Paris Med. Partie teamed. 72 (1929), pp. 163-169.

Morrell, J., & Thackray, A., Gentlemen of Science: Early Years of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Oxford, 1982. Very short section on phrenology, mostly about its exclusion from and relations to BAAS.

Morrell, Jack, and Arnold Thackray. "Phrenology and the Unwelcome Sciences." In their Gentlemen of Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981, pp. 276-81.

Morrell, Jack. 'Brains of Britain.' Soc Stud Sci. 16 (1986), pp. 735-45.

Muellener, E. R. 'Die Entstehung des Kleptomaniebegriffes.' Arch. f. Gesch. Med. 48 (1964), pp. 216-239.

Neuberger, Max, 'Galls Verhaltnis zum Mesmerismus.' Mit zur Geschichte der Medizin 15 (1916), pp. 475-476.

Neuberger, Max, The Historical Developmentof Experimental Brain and Spinal Cord Physiology Before Flourens [ 1897]. Trs and ed. Edwin Clarke. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

Neuburger, Max, 'Anhang zu den Briefen Galls,', Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin, 11, 1918, pp. 93-100. -about the relationship between Gall and Rudolphi, Soemmerring, & Burdach

Neuburger, Max, 'Briefe Galls an Andreas und Nannette Streicher.', Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin, 10, 1917, pp. 3-70. Most extensive collection of Gall's letters fully transcribed. The Streichers were friends in Vienna. The letters run from 1805-1827.

Neuburger, Max: Zur Gall-Biographie. In: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften 16, 1967, pp. 435/436 (Nachdruck der Ausg. von 1917)

Nivelet, F. Gall et sa Doctrine. Paris, 1890.

Norman, A. E. 'Introduction,' in 0. S. Fowler and L. N. Fowler, Phrenology: A Practical Guide to Your Head, New York: Chelsea House, 1969.

Novella, Steven, 'Phrenology History of a Pseudoscience', The New England Journal of Skepticism, 3 Issue 2 (Spring 2000).

Nye, Robert A. 'Sociology and degeneration: the irony of progress,' in J. Edward Chamberlain and Sander L. Gilman (eds), Degeneration, The Dark Side of Progress, New York: Columbia, 1985, pp. 49-71. (Discusses the influence of phrenology on Comte and Spencer.)

Oehler-Klein, S., 'Franz Joseph Gall, der Scharlatan - Samuel Thomas Soemmerring, der Wissenschaftler? Neuroanatomische Methoden, Erkenntnisse und Konsequenzen im Vergleich', Mann, G., Dumont, F., eds., Gehirn - Nerven - Seele: Anatomie und Physiologie im Umfeld S. Th. Soemmerrings. Stuttgart, New York, 1988, pp.93-132. Compares their findings and methods, and shows both were bound by traditions and ideas which limited what they could see- so that question of charlatanism is mooted.

Oehler-Klein, Sigrid, ''Der Sinn des Tigers': Zur Rezeption der Hirn- und Schädellehre Franz Joseph Galls im Werk Georg Büchner' in Georg Büchner Jahrbuch 5, 1985, pp. 18-51.

Oehler-Klein, Sigrid, Die Schädellehre Franz Joseph Galls in Literatur und Kritik des 19. Jahrhunderts: zur Rezeptionsgeschichte einer biologisch-medizinischen Theorie der Physiognomik und Psychologie. Stuttgart, New York, 1990. Probably the best work I have read on Gall. Very good contextual material and background, and very detailed and accurate account of Gall's system and reactions to it mostly in Germany but also in France. Also contains an excellent bibliography.

Oppenheim, Janet. 'Phrenology and Mesmerism,' in: The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research inEngland, 1850; 1914, London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 207-17.

Ott, T. 'Francis Joseph Gall.' Zeitschrift f. Menschenkunde 4 (1928), pp. 193-200.

Outram, Dorinda, 'Controversy, authority and the market: Lamarck, Gall and Naturphilosophie' chap 6 in her Georges Cuvier: Vocation, science and authority in post-revolutionary France. Manchester, 1984, pp. 118-140.

Pangels, Charlotte, Dr. Becker in geheimer Mission an Queen Victorias Hof: 1850-1861. Hamburg, 1996. Becker, a phrenologist, was tutor to the royal children. Many interesting anecdotes and a letter from George Combe. An English translation is currently underway. I was enlisted to help with the phrenological parts.

Parker, Neville. 'Murderers' Skulls', in John Pearn (ed), Pioneer Medicine in Australia, Brisbane: Amphion Press, 1988, pp. 93-105.

Parssinen, T.M., 'Popular Science and Society: The Phrenology Movement in Early Victorian Britain.' Journal of Social History 8:1-20. 1974. An early social interpretation, argues that criticism of phrenologists falls into 4 categories: satirical, religious, philosophical, and physiological.

Pasamanick, B. 'An Obscure Item in the Bibliography of Isaac Ray.' Amer. J. Psychiat. 111 (1954), pp. 164-171.

Paulian, D. 'Dr. Gall and his Descendants in Rumania.' Arch. d. Neurol. 4 (Bucharest, 1940), pp. 3-5.

Pauser, Wolfgang (1988), Der Wiener Nervenarzt Moriz Benedikt. »Psychophysik« zwischen Gall und Freud, in Wunderblock. Eine Geschichte der modernen Seele, hg. v. Jean Clair, Cathrin Pichler und Wolfgang Pircher. Wien: Locker, pp. 601-609.

Pedicino, V. 'Rapporti fra soma a Psyiche: de Gall a Lombroso Alla Medicina Constituzionalistics.' Pag. Storia Med. 11 (1967), pp. 82-87.

Pellin, Burton R. 'Nicholson's lost portrait of William Godwin: a study in phrenology,' Keats-Shelley J, 16 (1967), pp. 51-60.

Peyrouton, N. C. 'Boz and the American Phrenomesmerists,' Dickens Stud, 3 (1967), pp. 38-50.

Picavet, F. Les Idéologues Essai sur l'Histoire des Idées et des Theories Scientifiques, Philosophiques, Religieuses, etc. en France depuis 1789. Paris, 1891

Pietro Corsi ed., The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience, Oxford, 1991. Several important essays.

Poggi, Stefano, Bossi, Maurizio eds., 'Neurology and biology in the Romantic age in Germany: Carus, Burdach, Gall, von Baer', in Romanticism in science: Science in Europe, 1790-1840. Dordrecht, 1994, pp.143-160.

Pogliano, Claudio, L'organo dell'anima: Fisiologia cerebrale e disciplina dei comportamenti. Venezia : Marsilio, 1985. Summary: 'Il primato del cervello / di Claudio Pogliano; L'organo dell'anima: 1. Lettera aperta sul programma organologico (1798); Cronaca di una scoperta (1810); Pregiudizi, opinioni, errori e verità (1810); Anatomia e fisiologia del cervello (1813); Istinto ferino e inclinazione ad uccidere (1823); Considerazioni filosofiche sulle qualità morali e sulle facoltà intellettuali (1825)"

Pozzi d'Amico, Lelia, 'L'antropologia di Lavater e Gall nella "Fenomenologia dello spirito"', La storia della filosofia come sapere critico: Studi offerti a Mario Dal Pra, Milan, 1984, p.446-456.

Price, Alan. 'A Pioneer of Scientific Education: George Combe (1788-1858),' Educ Rev, 12 (1959-60), pp. 219-229.

Prideaux, T. S. 'Gall's Organology.' Anthropo. Rev. 7 (1869), pp. 76-92.

Radden, Jennifer, 'Lumps and Bumps: Kantian Faculty Psychology, Phrenology, and Twentieth-Century Psychiatric Classification', Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 3.1 (1996) 1-14.

Renneville, Marc, Phrénologie et criminologie , Revue internationale de philosophie pénale et de criminologie de l'acte, décembre 1994, n 5-6, pp. 247-268. "* Examen des rapports entre la phrénologie et la criminologie, pour montrer que la phrénologie peut-être considérée comme le modèle de toutes les théories passées ou présentes qui tentent de réduire le phénomène criminel à un dysfonctionnement organique des individus. "

Renneville, Marc, De la régénération à la dégénérescence. La science de l'homme face à 1848 , Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle, n spécial Nouveaux regards sur 1848 , 1997, n15, pp. 7-19. "* La révolution de 1848 a t-elle eu une influence sur les discours scientifiques sur l'homme ? Et ces derniers ont-il inversement joué un rôle dans l'interprétation des événements de 1848 ? Cet article tente de répondre à ces questions en s'appuyant sur la trajectoire déclinante de la phrénologie et le succès de la théorie des dégénérescences pour avancer quelques hypothèses sur ce tournant du milieu de siècle."

Renneville, Marc, De la régénération à la dégénérescence. La science de l'homme face à 1848 , Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle, n spécial Nouveaux regards sur 1848 , 1997, n15, pp. 7-19. "* La révolution de 1848 a t-elle eu une influence sur les discours scientifiques sur l'homme ? Et ces derniers ont-il inversement joué un rôle dans l'interprétation des événements de 1848 ? Cet article tente de répondre à ces questions en s'appuyant sur la trajectoire déclinante de la phrénologie et le succès de la théorie des dégénérescences pour avancer quelques hypothèses sur ce tournant du milieu de siècle. Alexandre Lacassagne : Un médecin-anthropologue face à la criminalité (1843-1924) , Gradhiva (Revue d'histoire et d'archives de l'anthropologie), 1995, n 17, pp. 127-140. * Étude sur la vie et l'oeuvre de ce médecin-légiste qui fut le chef de file de l'école lyonnaise d'anthropologie criminelle (1886-1914). J'ai essayé d'établir la cohérence et la complexité de la théorie criminologique de Lacassagne en rappelant combien elle devait à la phrénologie, à l'hygiénisme et au positivisme. La thèse avancée est que la théorie du passage à l'acte de Lacassagne est moins une sociologie qu'une médecine sociale."

Renneville, Marc, La langage des crânes: Une histoire de phrénolgie. Paris, 2000. Phrenology and anthropological criminology in France 1800-1850. "Avez-vous la bosse des maths, de la poésie ou de la peinture ? Cet inconnu présente t-il la bosse du crime ou celle de la ruse ? De 1800 à 1850, certains savants peuvent répondre à ces questions. Et pour le prouver, ils tâtent des têtes de génies (Napoléon...), de criminels (Lacenaire...) et de fous. Leur théorie est vérifiée par l'examen de milliers de moulages et de centaines de crânes récoltés à Paris, Londres, à Berlin, en Inde et en Océanie. Sûrs de leur bon savoir, les phrénologistes oeuvrent pour un monde meilleur, peuplé de génies, de criminels amendés et de fous guéris. Défendue par de nombreux médecins, politiciens et artistes, la phrénologie oscille pendant un demi-siècle entre science légitime et technique divinatoire, avant de tomber dans un discrédit total. Reléguée au statut de science occulte puis longtemps oubliée, elle semble actuellement renaître de ses cendres. Des neurobiologistes contemporains lui rendent justice d'avoir établi le principe des localisations cérébrales et d'éminents scientifiques estiment qu'elle a été la première science de l'homme rationnelle. Qu'en est-il exactement ? Riche de nombreux documents méconnus ou inédits, ce livre est une contribution originale au débat. Il vous invite à refaire le parcours des premiers phrénologistes, à partager leurs victoires et leurs déboires. Grâce à cette lecture participante, vous pourrez apprécier en connaissance de cause les réalisations et les rêves de nos savants (fous ?)."

Renneville, Marc, LUMIERE SUR UN CRÂNE ? Une lecture spéculaire de la découverte de l'atavisme criminel.

Renneville, Marc, Un terrain phrénologique dans le Grand Océan (autour du voyage de Dumoutier à bord de L'Astrolabe en 1837-40) in C. Blanckaert (Ed.), Le terrain des sciences humaines (Instructions et enquêtes. XVIIIe-XXe siècle), Paris, L'Harmattan, 1996, pp. 89-138. "* Résultat d'une recherche basée sur la consultation d'archives et de manuscrits inédits. Le récit éclaire la pensée et la pratique d'Alexandre Dumoutier en s'appuyant sur le journal de bord qu'il tint au cours de l'expédition scientifique dirigée par J. Dumont d'Urville, en 1837-40. Il en ressort que la phrénologie de Dumoutier n'est pas réductible à un racisme et qu'elle concilie tout au contraire une approche physiologique et un humanisme qui tranche avec la pensée des autres savants embarqués. Ce résultat d'enquête n'est pas sans portée méthodologique, puisqu'il montre qu'une théorie scientifique n'a pas de relation nécessaire et constante avec une seule politique."

Restani, Sugli Instinti; penoieri . . Attenenti Alle Osser-vazioni Critiche del Dott. M. Rusconi sul systems di Gall. Milano, 1884.

Ribery, C. 'La Phrenologie en Amerique.' Rev. philos. d. France. 55 (January-June, 1903), pp. 176-18b.

Riegel, Robert E., 'Early Phrenology in the United States.' Med. Life 37 (1930), pp. 361-376.

Riegel, Robert E., 'The Introduction of Phrenology to the United States,' The American Historical Review 39, no.1 (1933), pp. 73-78.

Rieger, Konrad, Über die Beziehungen der Schädellehre zur Physiologie, Psychiatrie und Ethnologie. Würzburg 1882

Riehl, G. 'On the So-called Gall's Heads.' Wien. Klin. Wachr. 74 (June, 1962), pp. 412-415.

Riese, W. and Hoff, E. C. 'A History of the Doctrine of Cerebral Localization: I. Sources, Anticipations and Basic Reasoning.' J. Hist. :ed. All. Sci. 5 (1950), pp. 50-71.

Riese, Walther. 'F. J. Gall et le probleme localisations,' L'Hygiene Mentale, 31 (1936), pp. 105-58.

Riese, Walther, 'Freudian Concepts of Brain Function and Brain Disease,' J New & Ment Dis, 127 (1958), pp. 287-307.

Riess, Walther, 'An Outline of a History of Ideas in Neurology.' Bull. Hist. Med. 23 (1949), pp. 111-136.

Riess, Walther, 'Les Discussions du Probleme des Localisations Cerebrales dans les Societes Savants du XIXe Siecle et Leurs Rapports Avec des vues Contemporaines.' Hyg. Ment. 31 (1936), pp. 137-158.

Riess, Walther, A History of Neurology. New York, 1959.

Riess, Walther, 'The Early History of Aphasia.' Bull. Hist. Med. (1947), pp. 322-334.

Risse, Guenter B. 'Vocational Guidance During the Depression: Phrenology versus Applied Psychology,' J Hist Behav Sci 12 (1976), pp. 130-40.

Ritter, W. Essays. Published in Honor of the Discoverer of the Physiology of the brain Fr. J. Gall. London, 1954 .

Rocchietta, S. 'Francesco Giuseppe Gall (1758-1828), Anatomico, Fisiologo a Fondatore Della Frenologia.' Minerva Med. 49 (Torino, 1958), pp. 1758-1759.

Rolleston, J. D. 'F. J. V. Broussais (1772-1838), pp. His Life and Doctrines.' Proc. Royal Soc. :fed. 32 (1939), pp. 405-413.

Rollet, Alexander 'Aus dem Zeitalter der Phrenologie mit besonderer Beziehung auf Göthes Verkehr mit dem Phrenologen Gall', Deutsche Revue über das gesamte nationale Leben der Gegenwart, 7.2.1882, pp. 360-380.

Rosen, G. 'The Philosophy of Ideology and the Emergence of Modern Medicine in France.' Bull. Hist. Xed. 20 (1946), pp. 328-339.

Rosenberg, M. 'Todestag von Franz Joseph Gall.' Psychiat. Neurol. v. Med. Psycho;. 21 (1969), pp. 357-358.

Rowlette, Robert, ''Howells as his head makes him': a phrenologist's report,' Amer Notes & Queries, 11 (1973), pp. 115-6.

Sampalmieri, Angelino. 'Delta Fisiognomonia di Giovanni Gospare Lavater (1741-1801) alla Frenologia di Francesco Giuseppe Gall (1751-1829),' Med Secoli, 5 (1968), pp. 10-16.

Sandler, Thomas, ed. Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence of Henry Crabb Robinson. 2nd ed. London, 1869. 3 vols. -vol1. mentions Gall's Jena lectures in 1805. Robinson also met Gall at dinner.

Schadewalt, Hans, 'Paralipomena zu Leben und Werk von Franz Joseph Gall', Wiss Z Karl Marx Univ Leipzig (Math Naturwiss Reihe), 5, 1955-6, pp.111-15.

Schneider, K. C. 'Franz Joseph Gall.' Wien. Klin. Rund. 20 (1907), pp. 687-690.

Schott, L. 'Kranioskopie im Dienste der Hirnforschung. Franz Joseph Gall, dem Begründer der Organologie (Phrenologie) zum 225. Geburtstag', Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift, 25, 1984, pp. 697-708, 4 fig., Includes 3 pages of bibliographical references. -lists Galls contributions neuroscience to be: he understood the cortex as the seat of complex psychic functions, and was first to see brain as continuation of spinal nerves, and that there is localization of function in the cerebral cortex.

Schott, L., 'Franz Joseph Galls organologische Vorstellungen aus der Sicht heutiger neuroanatomischer und kraniologischer Erkenntnisse' Biol. Rdsch., 19, 1981, pp.88-94.

Schuhmann, Kuno. 'Phrenologie and Ideologies Frederick Marryat's Mr Midshipman Easy,' Die Neueren Sprachen, 13 (1964), pp. 567-73.

Schulz, Friedrich, Die Schädellehre Dr. Gall's und seine Restschädelsammlung im Städtischen Rollett Museum zu Baden bei Wien (self-published by the author, Vienna, 1973). [a copy is deposited the University of Cambridge Library] Contains colour photographs of skulls marked by Gall and other objects once belonging to Gall in this museum.

Schulz, Hans, 'Gleichzeitige Stimmen über Galls Vorlesungen in Halle', Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin, 12, 1920, pp. 59-69. -provides full quotes from contemporary papers etc. over visit to Halle.

Schwartz, Harold. 'Samuel Gridley Howe as Phrenologist,' Amer Hist Rev, 57 (1952), pp. 644-51.

Secord, J., Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Chicago & London, 2000. Fascinating treatment of Combe and his circle and phrenology in Edinburgh.

Selling, Lowell S. ''Quack' Number one-Gall,' in his Men Against Madness. New York: Greenberg, 1942, pp. 121-72.

Senfelder, L.: Galls Schädellehre vor dem Staatstribunal 1802. In: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, Nr. 7, 1927, pp. 231-234.

Senseman, Wilfred M.: Charlotte Brontes Use of Physiognomy and Phrenology. In: Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 38, 1953, pp. 475-486.

Sensemen, Wilfred M. 'Charlotte Bronte's Use of Physiognomy and Phrenology,' Papers of Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, 38 (1953), pp. 475-86. Also published in Trans Bronte Soc, 12 (1957), pp. 286-9.

Shafer, Elizabeth. 'Phrenology's Golden Years,' Amer Hist Illus, 8 (1974), pp. 36-43.

Shapin, S., 'Homo Phrenologicus: Anthropological Perspectives on an Historical Problem,' in Barnes, B.S., & Shapin, S., eds., Natural order: Historical Studies of Scientific Culture. London, 1979, pp.41-71. Argues for contextualizing as opposed to the older tradition of inevitable science advance and an assumed correspondence to "reality" as well as traditional formulations of an internalist/externalist debate. Assumes "scientific culture" is a "social product". "The aim is not to display new "facts" concerning the phrenological movement...Rather, the effort will be to see whether a more-explicit-than-usual analysis of the social epistemology appropriate to understanding this episode may serve to refine available historical techniques for imputing beliefs about nature to social groupings."

Shapin, S., 'Phrenological Knowledge and the Social Structure of Early Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh', Annals of Science, 32, 1975, pp. 219-243. "My purpose, in brief, is to explain the controversy by integrating the various intellectual positions taken up by actors with their social position, interests and values." Provides tables to argue that phrenologists were outsiders and their opponents higher-status elites. Falls rather into a subtle tautological trap by claiming that a "social logic" (i.e. attributing a degree of certainty to the perceived self-interest of a social group) makes clear that phrenologists supported this as they were this kind of people, and opponents that as they were that. His approach goes too far in identifying social interests with the debate and excluding any other dynamic to the debate- relegating the actual points under discussion and the rhetoric in which they were clothed to epiphenomenal irrelevance. Rather aggressive social criticism of Cantor's approach.

Shapin, S., 'The Politics of Observation: Cerebral Anatomy and Social Interests in the Edinburgh Phrenology Disputes', in On the Margins of Science: The Social Construction of Rejected Knowledge, Sociological Review Monograph, 27, University of Keele, 1979, pp. 139-178. Argues phrenology developed into "a far-reaching programme of social and cultural reform." Writes of phrenology "serving certain social interests". "The phrenologists' social interests may therefore be conceived as a sort of motor, driving them to produce and develop knowledge in which ideally it would become impossible for their opponents to discern the action of these interests."

Sherrington, C.S., Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 10th ed. 'Phrenology'.

Sherrington, C.S., Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 11th ed. 'Brain,'

Shortland, Michael 'The Power of a Thousand Eyes: Johann Casper Lavater's Science of Physiognomical Perception,' Criticism, 28 (1986), pp. 379-408.

Shortland, Michael, 'Courting the Cerebellum: Early Organological and Phrenological Views of Sexuality' in BJHS, 20, 1987, 173-199. -A particularly perceptive article- highly recommended.

Shortland, Michael. 'Skin Deep: Barthes, Lavater and the Legible Body,' Economy and Society, 14 (1985), pp. 273-312.

Silverstein, Albert. 'Sherlock Holmes, psychology and phrenology,' Baker St J, 22 (1972), pp. 18-23.

Singer, Charles. 'Phrenology and the Neurosurgeons,' Virginia Med Mon, 94 (1967), pp. 412-13.

Skerpan, Alfred A. 'M[atrei] S. Volkov [1802-78]: an explorer of the Borderlands of Science in Nineteenth-Century Russia,' Russian Rev, 26 (1967), pp. 264-77. (Volkov was the leading Russian phrenologist.)

Sloane, David E. E. 'Phrenology in Hard Times: a source for Bitzer,' Dickens Stud Newsl, 5 (1974), pp. 9-12 J

Smet, de, Yves. La neuropsychologie 'pre-corticale': Histoire de la localisation et de la constitution des 'functions mentales superieures' de Thalbs de Milet 'd Franz Josef Gall. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Ciaco Editeur, 1986.

smet, Yves de, La neuropsychologie 'pré-corticale': Histoire de la localisation et de la constitution des 'fonctions mentales supérieures' de Thalès de Milet à Franz Josef Gall / Yves de Smet. Bruxelles : U.C.B., 1986.

Smith, Roger. 'The Background of Physiological Psychology in Natural Philosophy,' Hist Sci, 11 (1973), pp. 75-123.

Snorrason, E., 'The Danish Physician Carl Otto (1795-1879) and Phrenology', In: Wien und die Weltmedizin ed. Erna Lesky. Wien, Köln, Graz, 1974, pp. 146-158 (Studien zur Geschichte der Universität Wien, Bd. 9). Really the only significant phrenologist in Denmark.

Sondermann, Frieder, 'Tohoku Gakuin Daigaku', [on Gall in Japanese] Journal of Human Informatics, vol. 3, March 1998, pp. 93-104.

Soury, J. Le Systéme Nerveux Central: Structure et Fonctions. Paris, 1899.

Spencer, Frank. 'Samuel George Morton's doctoral thesis on bodily pain: the probable source of Morton's polygenism,' Trans Stud Coll Phycns Philad, ser. 5, 5 (1983), pp. 321-38.

Spitz, H. I., 'Phrenology: Now, that's using the noggin', Opthalmology Times, 23 (6), 1998, 8-9.

Spoerl, Howard Davis. 'Faculties versus traits: Gall's solution,' Character and Personality, 4 (1935-6), pp. 216-231.

Stack, David, 'William Lovett and the National Association for the Political and Social Improvement of the People', The Historical Journal, 42, 1999, pp. 1027-1050. An important article which takes a critical view of the older overtly social interpretations of phrenology. Stack argues advocates of the National Association used Combeian schemes but without accepting middle-class leadership as Cooter and Desmond would have it. Instead Stack sees evidence for a working-class self-improvement game that did not fawn at the bourgeousie. Lovett used phrenological language (like encouraging the animal propensities) to stigmatize his opponents and to argue for the superiority and naturalness of his own policies. Stack is one of the few historians working on phrenology today. He is currently working on a biography of George Combe.

Starkman, Miriam K. 'Quakers, Phrenologists and Jonathan Swift', Journal for theHistory of Ideas, 20 (1959), pp. 403-12.

Stauffer, Donald Barlow. 'Poe as Phrenologist: the example of Monsieur Dupin', in R. P. Veler (ed), Papers on Poe. Springfield, Ohio: Chantry, 1972, pp. 113-25.

Staum, Martin, 'Physiognomy and Phrenology at the Paris Athénée' Journal History of Ideas, 56, 1995, pp.443-462. - "despite the flourishing of popular phrenology in Britain and the United States, its waning scientific prestige in an era of increasing specialization could no longer serve the diverse political and social aims of reformers or conservatives."

Steendijk-Kuypers, J., 'Het succes van een dwaling. De hersen-schedeleer van Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) en de echo van de frenologie in Nederland', Ned Tijdschrift Geneeskunde, 140, 1996, pp. 2560-2564.

Stern, Madeleine B., 'The Game's a Head', Baker St Journal, 20 (1970), pp.157-165.

Stern, Madeleine B., 'Matthew Brady Again', Quart J Lib Congress, 35 (1978), pp. 242-3.

Stern, Madeleine B., 'Mark Twain Had His Head Examined,' Amer Lit, 41 (1969), pp. 207-18.

Stern, Madeleine B., 'Matthew A. Brady and the 'Rationale of crime':A discovery in daguerrotypes,' Quart J Lib Congress, 31 (1974), pp. 127-135.

Stern, Madeleine B., A Phrenological Dictionary of Nineteenth Century Americans. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Stern, Madeleine B., The Game's a Head: A phrenological case-study of Sherlock Holmes and Arthur Conan Doyle. Rockville Center, New York: Paulette Greene, 1983.

Stern, Madeleine B., Heads & Headlines. The Phrenological Fowlers. Oklahoma 1971. One of the major works on phrenology in America and the final phrenological movement in Britain..

Stern, Madeleine B., Poe: ,The Mental Temperament' for Phrenologists. In: American Literature 40, 1968-1969, pp. 155-163.

Stoehr, Taylor. 'Physiognomy and Phrenology in Hawthorne.' Huntington Library Quarterly 36, August 1974, pp. 355-400.

Stoehr, Taylor. Hawthorne's Mad Scientists: Pseudoscience and Social Science inNineteenth-CenturyLife and Letters. Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1978.

Taylor Stoehr, 'Robert H. Collyer 's Technology of the soul,' in Arthur Wrobel, ed., Pseudo-science and society in nineteenth century America (Univ. of Kentucky, 1987): 21-45.

Thijssen, H.F., 'Over de Leer van Gall', Thijssen, 1858, pp. 145-214. A sophisticated review of Gall's story.

Stookey, B. 'A Note on the Early History of Cerebral Localization.' Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 30 (1954); 559-578.

Swasey, J. P. 'Action Propre and Action Commune: The Localization of Cerebral Function.' J. Hist. Biol. 3 (1970), pp. 213-234.

Tausig, P., 'Briefe von Andreas und Nannette Streicher an Anton Franz Rollett über die Gallsche Schädelsammlung', Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin, 12, 1920, pp. 50-58. -letters from 1824 or later. includes an index of the Rollett collection.

Tausig, P., 'Eine unbekannte Silhouette F.J. Galls', Der Erdgeist, 1.3.1908.

Temkin, Oswei, 'Gall and the Phrenological Movement' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 21, 1947, pp. 275-321. Mostly about Gall and how his ideas differed and related to Kant and big names of his time, heavy on France, then article moves to Anglo Saxon world and Spurzheim. Nice summation of Constitution.

Temkin, Owsei. 'Remarks on the Neurology of Gall and Spurzheim', in E. A. Underwood (ed), Science, Medicine and History, vol 2, London: Oxford University Press, 1953, pp. 282-89.

Tizard, B. 'Theories of Brain Localization from Flourens to Lashley.' Med. Hist. 3 (1959), pp. 132-145.

Tomlinson, Stephen, Head Masters: Phrenology, secular education, and nineteenth-century social thought. Tuscaloosa, 2005.

Tomlinson, Stephen, 'Phrenology, Education and the politics of human nature: The thought and influence of George Combe.' History of Education [Great Britain] 1997 26(1): pp. 1-22. Mostly on history of education.

Turner, Frank Miller. 'Deviation from Natural Selection: the phrenological basis', in his Between Science and Religion: the Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian , New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1974, pp. 73-84.

Tyrus, Hillway: Melville's Use of Two Pseudo-Sciences. Modern Language Notes 64,1949, pp. 145-150.

Tytler, G. Physiognomy in the European Novel: Faces and Fortunes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Ucelli, P. Compendio di Anatomia-Fisiologico Comparata ad uso Della Scuola di Medicina. Firenze, 1825-1926.

Underhill, Paul. 'Alternative Views of Science in Intra-Professional Conflict: General Practitioners And The Medical And Surgical Elite 1815-58', Journal of Historical Sociology, 1992, 5(3), pp. 322-350. -argues that medical elites invoked the civilized gentlemanly science of John Hunter, the general practitioner was more disposed to embrace the more radical democratic sciences such as phrenology and the new morphology.

Vallois, H. V. 'Le Docteur Gall et la Phrenologie.' Progr. Med. 83 (Paris, 1955), pp. 277.

Vallois, H. V. 'Le Docteur Gall et la Theorie des Localisations Ce rebrales.' Rev. Med. Toulouse 2 (1966), pp. 809-814.

Vernon, Richard, 'The Political Self: Auguste Comte And Phrenology', History of European Ideas, 1986, 7(3), pp. 271-286. Abstract: "For Auguste Comte (1798-1857), French thinker and pioneer sociologist, individuals' pathologies reproduced those of the body politic. He was "a theorist of conflict as well as of the 'consensus' for which he is so famous, and valued phrenology for its demonstration of internal plurality and tension." ca 1830-57.

Waksman, Steven. 'Psychometric Phrenology Revisited: Comments on Neuropsychological Testing,' J ConsultClin Psychol, 46 (1978), pp. 1489-90.

Walker, A. Earl: The Development of the Concept of Cerebral Localization in the Nineteenth Century. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine 31, 1957,. pp. 99-121.

Walsh, A., 'Phrenology Applied: The Trial and Conviction of Major Mitchell', Communiqué, 13(5), February, 1985, pp. 3-4. ["official newsletter" of the National Association of School Psychologists].

Walsh, A., 'George Combe: A Portrait of a Heretofore Generally Unknown Behaviorist', Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 7:269-278, 1971.

Walsh, A., Introduction to Observations On Mental Derangement: Being An Application Of The Principles Of Phrenology To The Elucidation Of The Causes, Symptoms, Nature And Treatment Of Insanity, by Andrew Combe (Boston, 1834). A. A.. Walsh, Editor. Delmar, New York:Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, 1972.

Walsh, A., Introduction to Observations on the Deranged Manifestations Of Mind, Or Insanity, by J.G. Spurzheim (Boston, 1833). A. A.. Walsh, Editor. Gainesville, Florida:Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, 1970.

Walsh, A., Is Phrenology Foolish? A Rejoinder. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 6:358-361, 1970.

Walsh, A., Johann Christoph Spurzheim: In Memoriam. History Of Psychology, April, l984.

Walsh, A., 'Phrenology and the Boston medical community in the 1830s' Bull. History Med. 50, 1976, pp. 261-273.

Walsh, A., Phrenology Applied: The Trial and Imprisonment of Major Mitchell. History of Psychology, April, l984.

Walsh, A., Review of M.B. Stern's Heads And Headlines: The Phrenological Fowlers (Norman, Oklahoma, 1971). Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 8:439-44l, 1972

Walsh, A., The "New Science of the Mind" and the Philadelphia Physicians in the Early l800's. Transactions & Studies Of The College Of Physicians Of Philadelphia, 4th Series, Vol., 43(4), April, l976, 397-415 [Based on an invited address delivered at The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Philadelphia on October 22, l975.].

Walsh, A., 'The American Tour of Dr Spurzheim', Journal History Med and Allied Science, 27, 1972, pp. 187-206. An important essay- many details about Spurzheim that have been published nowhere else. Includes picture of Spurzheim's skull at Harvard Med school in Boston. Lists Spurzheim's entire property after death, numbers of skulls and busts down to his tooth brush.

Walsh, A., The Curious Trial of the Durham Boy. Newport, No. 2, 2:4-8, 1979; and 'The Durham Boy,' Communique, Fall, 1984 [Journal of the National Association of School Psychologists]. "a case wherein an attorney attempted an incompetency defense for the boy, accused of assault, on the basis of an alleged damaged organ of destructiveness. The case took place in the mid-1830s and he was ultimately sentenced to prison."

Walsh, A., When Heads Were Headlines. (PDF format)1999[1982]. Requires the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Walsh, A., 'The 'new science of the mind' and the Philadelphia physicians in the early 1800s,' Trans Stud Coll Phycns Philad, 43 (1976), pp. 397-415.

Warren, J. Collins. 'The Collection of the Boston Phrenological Society-a retrospect,' Ann Med Hist, 3 (1921), pp. 1-11.

Wegner, Peter-Christian, 'Das Ringen um Anerkennung: Drei Briefe Galls an Cuvier', Medizinhistorisches Journal, 1990, 25, pp. 40-89. Besides the valuable extracts from Gall's letters to Cuvier, this article treats of Gall's relationship to and position vis-à-vis Cuvier and other big name contemporaries and compares with Gall's later reputation.

Wegner, Peter-Christian, 'Franz Joseph Gall in der zeitgenössischen französischen Karikatur', Medizinhistorisches Journal, 1988, 23, pp. 106-122.

Wegner, Peter-Christian, 'Franz Joseph Gall in Schleswig-Holstein', Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, 111, 1986, pp. 119-41.

Wegner, Peter-Christian, Franz-Joseph Gall (1758-1828): Studien zu Leben, Werk und Wirkung. Hildesheim, 1991.

Wegner, Peter-Christian, 'Le docteur Gall à Cythère', Medizinhistorisches Journal, 1984, 19, pp. 233-243.

Wegner, Peter-Christian, 'Materialismus in der Kranioskopie? Die Berichterstattung über Franz Joseph Gall in der französischen regierungsamtlichen Zeitung 'Gazette Nationale ou le Monteur Universel', Mann, G., Dumont, F., eds., Gehirn - Nerven - Seele: Anatomie und Physiologie im Umfeld S. Th. Soemmerrings. Stuttgart, New York, 1988, pp.159-174. Follows the coverage of Gall in one French gazette.

Wegner, Peter-Christian, 'Phrenologische Schnupftabakdosen: Ein Beitrag zur Wirkung Franz Joseph Galls bei seiner Ankunft in Paris', Medizinhistorisches Journal, 1983, 18, pp. 69-99. -quite detailed analysis of French reception based on craniologically decorated snuff boxes.

West, Cornel, 'A Geneology of Modern Racism' in Knowledge and Postmodernism in Historical Perspective. London, 1996, pp.476-486. Argues phrenology responsible for second phase of white supremacy in USA.

Wiese, E., ed., Enter: The Comics. Rodolphe Toepffer's essay on Physiognomy and the True Story of Monsieur Crepin. Lincoln: Un. of Nebraska Press, 1965.

Whitfield, A. G. W. '[James] Clark and [Andrew] Combe: Fact and Fantasy,' J Roy Coll Physns, 11 (1977), pp. 268-72.

Widenmann, August, Franz Joseph Gall und seine Schädellehre : Eine histor. u. krit. Untersuchung. [Potsdam] : [s.n.], [1948].

Wilks, S. 'Notes on the History of the Physiology of the Nervous System. Taken more Especially from Writers on Phrenology.' Guy's Hosp. Reps. 24 (1879), pp. 57-94.

Williams, Elizabeth, The physical and the moral: Anthropology, physiology, and philosophical medicine in France, 1750-1850. Cambridge, 1994. Has a section on Gall's reception in Paris and on the later phrenology movement there. However this examination does not benefit from the historiography of British phrenology. Hence the attributes that French phrenology had are explained via local circumstances even though they came from Britain.

Williams, W. Mattieu, A Vindication of Phrenology. London, 1894. Williams was a friend of George Combe's. The entire book is a cut and paste collection of earlier phrenological and anti-phrenological texts. This would be worth reading if you cannot access the oldest sources. Also many images are reproduced here.

Wilson, John B. 'Phrenology and the Transcendentalists,' Amer Lit, 28 (1956-1957), pp. 220-5.

Wrobel, Arthur 'A Poet's self-esteem: Whitman alters his 'bumps,' Walt Whitman Rev, 17 (1971), pp. 129-135.

Wrobel, Arthur 'Orthodoxy and respectability in nineteenth-century phrenology,' J Pop Culture, 9 (1975), pp. 38-50.

Wrobel, Arthur 'Whitman and the phrenologists: the divine body and the sensuous soul', PMLA, 89 (1974), pp. 17-23.

Wrobel, Arthur, 'Orthodoxy and Respectability in Nineteenth-Century Phrenology', Journal of Popular Culture 9, 1975, pp. 38-50. Well worth a look. Sees Americans attracted to phrenology because of its convincing authoritative scientific aura.

Wrobel, Arthur, 'phrenology as political science', idem ed. Pseudo-Science and Society in Nineteenth Century America. Lexington, Ky., 1987.

Wyhe, John, van, 'The authority of human nature: the Schdellehre of Franz Joseph Gall', British Journal for the History of Science, March, 2002, pp. 17-42.

Wyhe, John, van, Phrenology and the origins of Victorian scientific naturalism (Ashgate, 2004). (Amazon link)

Wyhe, John, van ed., Combe's Constitution of Man, and Nineteenth-Century Responses, 3 vols, Thoemmes Press, 2004.

Wyhe, John, van, ‘Was phrenology a reform science? Towards a new generalization for phrenology’, History of Science, xlii, 2004, pp. 313-331.

Young, R.M., 'The Functions of the Brain: Gall to Ferrier (1808-1886)', Isis, 59, no 198, 1968, pp. 251-268. This is the condensed version of his book. "My aim is to suggest that when the study of the mind came to be considered in physiological and biological terms, powerful philosophic constraints were at work which narrowed the issue and impoverished the study of the mental functions of human and other organisms." Mostly discusses brain anatomists and men of science.

Young, R.M., Mind, Brain, and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral localization and its biological context from Gall to Ferrier. Oxford, 1970 & 1990. This book is widely credited with re-awakening modern Anglo-American scholarly and historical interest in Gall and phrenology. Lucid analysis of Gall's methods and logic- though misleadingly describes Gall as particularly original. Gall appears so original because Young did not have access to any sources which Gall himself read- nor did Young take late eighteenth-century Vienna into account. Young himself writes in the introduction to the 1990 reprint: "The criticism that has been most often and most legitimately levelled at this book is that it is woefully weak with respect to German sources. Indeed, the eminent historian of medicine, Erwin H. Ackerknecht, wrote: "This is undoubtedly a very important story, and the book an important and well-written contribution to its history. Unfortunately it is a torso. Apparently the author is not familiar with the German language (German authors are consulted only in translations)..." - Young is still important as an examination of Gall's translated work and for an informed analysis of Gall's place in the history of psychology.

Zangwill, O. L. 'The Cerebral Localization of Psychological Functions.' Advanc. Science, 20, (1963-1964), pp. 335-344.

Ziemann, Johannes, 'Der Musiksinn und seine Lokalisation', Medizinischer Monatsspiegel, hrsg. Abt. Wiss. Inform. E. Merck, Darmstadt, Heft 6, 1970.

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