Phrenological bust by LN FowlerPhrenological bust by LN FowlerThe History of Phrenology on the Web

by John van Wyhe

H. Lundie, The Phrenological Mirror; or, Delineation Book. Leeds, C. Croshaw, 1844.

The text of this pamphlet is very much in the Combe tradition, though less anti-theological. I have chosen it because it is a typical British phrenological text from the older or first school of phrenology before the 'new' phrenology of the 1860s and onwards. Of particular interest here are the descriptions of the temperaments on page five, the amusing and revealing descriptions next to the size index of each organ, and the "groups or combinations of faculties" on page fifteen. From the advertisement placed on page four, one can gather that Lundie's text is geared towards suitability analyses. Lundie earned money by convincing his audience that the special knowledge of phrenology enabled him to pronounce with scientific accuracy the: "Trades, Callings, and Professions best calculated for a young person to follow".

I would also like to call attention to the paragraphs on page thirteen: "PROPER USES OF THE ORGANS" and "DEFICIENCY OF THE FACULTIES". These two sections are the proscriptive or 'ought' assertions of the phrenologist. They make interesting and revealing reading.

Very little is currently known about H. Lundie. Roger Cooter's entry in his excellent bio-bibliography of British phrenology notes for Lundie: "lectured on phreno-mesmerism in Devizes, Scotland, 1844: (possibly the same who appeared in English towns in the early 1840s and was regarded by the [Sheffield Phrenological Society in 1846] as an itinerant quack)." The same entry also appears in Cooter, 1984. Lundie names himself here a "Practical Phrenologist and Mesmerist"— but there are no mesmeric influences in this pamphlet and the majority could have been copied from the pages of George Combe.

The pagination and format have been carefully preserved. Line integrity has not been preserved. Editorial additions or corrections are marked by [ ].


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M R. H. L U N D I E,



Respectfully submits the following as his terms to the Nobility, Gentry and Public;—

For marking down the Sizes or Powers of the Organs, or for selecting from this book the proper Character, and pointing out the Trades, Callings, and Professions best calculated for a young person to follow; also for showing the Combinations of the various Faculties, and the influence which one Organ may have upon another, including the Temperaments and how to improve or decrease those Faculties which may be too small, or too large....................2s. 6d. and 3s. 6d.

Written Analysis...........5s. 0d.

For do. with a full Sketch of Character...10s. 0d.




Phrenology, properly understood, is destined to effect a giant physical, and moral regeneration amongst our race, and were its principles dissimulated as they ought to be, by far the greatest number of those evils attendant on frail humanity, would be avoided at every turn of life we should consult this infallible oracle. If about to marry, Phrenology will point out to us the characters, dispositions, and tempers of those with whom we are about to be united for life. Have we sons and daughters—and do we wish them to learn those trades, callings, and professions best suited to their various organisations? If so, Phrenology will point out to us their various capabilities, and prevent that cruel disappointment which is to be met with in every day's occurrences; and, if we are desirous of knowing the true characters of clerks, shopmen, domestics, masters, &c , Phrenology will teach us to read it in the various shapes and developments of the human head. Does it not then become the bounden duty of parents to have the heads of their children examined—the peculiar features of their characters pointed out, that they may know how to deal with, and educate them—also the most proper trade or profession to engage them in? Is it not also the duty of young persons before entering upon the marriage state to know by the same rule the characters and dispositions of those who are to be their partners through life. And is it not a duty which we owe to ourselves to know the strength of our feelings, propensities, faculties, or powers of our mind, so that we may be enabled to guard against the abuses of those powers which are given us by the benevolent Creator, and that we use them for wise purposes, cultivate every feeling and faculty to his honour, and to our own benefit, also to the benefit of those by whom we are, or may be surrounded ?



The NERVOUS Temperament is distinguished by small muscles thin fair hair, quick muscular, action is very susceptible and easily fatigued.

The SANGUINE Temperament is distinguished by light hair blue eyes fair and ruddy countenance, form well defined, fond of animation and activity.

The BILIOUS Temperament is perceptible by black or dark coloured hair dark eyes, angular outline of countenance and person, firm texture of body and strong mental energy.

The LYMPHATIC Temperament is known by a round form, fat and corpulent softness of flesh and muscles, fair hair and pale skin, languor of the body, and inactivity of the brain and nervous system.





ORDER 1st.Feelings. GENUS 1st.Propensities.



2. Small. Old maidenish and particular ; total want of sexual feeling.

4. Moderate. Rather fastidious in selecting a lover; cold and reserved.

6. Full. Very apt to become enamoured, but inclined to be inconsistent.

8. Large. Very susceptible to the passion of love, sincere affection.

10.Extra large. Extreme passion ; blind sexual attachment.


2. Small. Decided aversion to children ; want of parental feeling.

4. Moderate. Indifference to children and pets no anxiety for them.

6. Full. A due regard for children, but not blind partiality.

8. Large. Strong degree of parental affection and tenderness.

10.Extra large. Excessive fondness for children; too indulgent.


2. Small. Inability to confine the attention, which is ever roving.

4. Moderate Versatility of thought and action ; fond of variety.

6. Full. Ability to dwell on a subject, and control the imagination.

8. Large. A talent for pursuing abstracts, or metaphysical questions.

10.Extra large. Great power of rivetting the attention ; tedious.


2. Small. Destitute of affection ; always desirous of change.

4. Moderate Changeable in love of affection; very fond of variety.

6. Full. Constancy, pure affection, platonic and sincere attachments.

8. Large. Unalterable affection ; enduring all things for love.

10.Extra large. Passionate and devoted in attachment to friends.


2. Small. Weak and irresolute, too much disposed to yield to others.

4. Moderate Indifferent courage; averse to extreme measures.

6. Full. Resolution, decision, energy, and determination of character.

8. Large. Great personal courage under opposition and danger.

10.Extra large. Indomitable courage, force, and resolution to resist.



2. Small. Extremely averse to action; lack of energy of character.

4. Moderate. Ability to control the passions; indolent and inactive.

6. Full. Energetic, resolute and decided ; easily incited to action.

8. Large. Passionate and hasty in expressions of anger; quarrelsome.

10.Extra large. Cruel, furious, vindictive, revengeful and vicious.


2. Small. Disrelish for food, prefering vegetable to animal diet.

4. Moderate. Abstemious; no desire for high seasoned or dainty food.

6. Full. Good relish for food, not indulging in excesses.

8. Large. Fond of banqueting, a hearty, keen, and healthy appetite.

10.Extra large. An excessive fondness for high luxurious living.


2 Small. Extremely liable to be imposed upon; want of circumspection.

4. Moderate. Candid, open, communicative, agreeable, and sociable.

6. Full. Prudent, cautious, calculating, &c., without much deception.

8. Large. Artful, designing, and intriguing; an adept at management.

10.Extra large. Crafty, deceitful, dissimulating, and given to intrigue.


2. Small. Indifferent about money, and very apt to spend it freely.

4. Moderate. Generous and free; little solicitude about acquiring.

6. Full. Industrious, frugal, and economical, occasionally liberal.

8. Large. Indefatigable in getting money, parsimonious and saving.

10.Extra large. Extremely miserly, sordid, penurious, and covetous.


2. Small. Very bungling and awkward, great aversion to using tools.

4. Moderate. Indifferent talents, and distaste for mechanical pursuits.

6. Full. Fair share of mechanical skill and ingenuity; good ability.

8. Large. Excellent judgment in planning and skill in contriving.

10.Extra large. Great mechanical talents for making and contriving.


GENUS 2nd.—Inferior Sentiments.



2. Small. Apt to greatly underate oneself; too diffident.

4. Moderate. Wanting in dignity and self-confidence; too easily abashed.

6. Pull. Proper degree of pride, and correct notions of propriety.

8. Large. Ambitious of distinction, independent and high minded.

10.Extra large. Presumptous, proud, arrogant, and overbearing.


2. Small. Want of politeness and affability; careless and rude.

4. Moderate. Indifferent to the observations of others; independent.

6. Full. A due regard for popularity, and not too subservient

8. Large. Ambitious of excelling others, and desirous of applause.

10. Extra large. Too sensitive of the opinion of others; vain, showy.


2. Small. Want of prudence, extremely rash, hasty and inconsiderate.

4. Moderate. Absence of fear, but rather improvident and careless.

6. Full. Prudent and cautious, enabled to act with great decision.

8. Large. Indecision, want of resolution, courage, and determination.

10.Extra large. Cowardice, fear, and timidity, weak and irresolute.


GENUS 3rd.—Superior Sentiments.



2. Small. Sordid, avaricious, mean, and totally insensible to charity.

4. Moderate. Indifferent to the welfare of others; selfish and unkind.

6. Full. Active desire of doing good, a great degree of sympathy.

8. Large. Free, kind, and liberal ; tender, charitable and humane.

10.Extra large. Munificent and generous to a fault; unbounded liberality.


2. Small. Rude and overbearing, want of proper respect to superiors.

4. Moderate. Inactive feelings of devotion, want of humility.

6. Full. Proper solicitude about religious matters; due consideration.

8. Large. Very religious; respectful and kind to superiors.

10.Extra large. Profound feelings of awe, and adoration for the Deity.



2. Small. Variable, shifting; easily abandoning former views.

4. Moderate. Want of stability; easily persuaded and too readily giving up.

6. Full. Steadiness, stability; little disposition to change of purpose.

8. Large. Great resolution and decision of character and purpose.

10.Extra large. Invincible perseverance, reckless energy and courage.


2. Small. Want of principle; no scruple of conscience or honour.

4. Moderate. No compunction for sin; making dishonest bargains.

6. Full. Good share of integrity, but not over sensitive in trading.

8. Large. Strictly honest and just; sensitive to the rights of others.

10. Extra large.The highest regard for truth, justice, honour and probity.


2. Small. Melancholy, depression of spirits, general despondency.

4. Moderate. Reasonable desires, and not much ecstacy of feeling.

6. Full. Apt to view the bright side of a picture; buoyant anticipation.

8. Large. Vivacity and cheerfulness ; anticipating great happiness.

10 Extra large.Great elevation of spirits; inclined to castle building.


2. Small. Very sceptical; distrusting the best friends, incredulous.

4. Moderate. Small degree of faith; want of credulity; superstitious.

6. Full. Fond of the wonderful and astonishing; delighting in romance.

8. Large. Credulous, fanciful; an active imagination; superstitious.

10.Extra large.Strong belief in the supernatural, apt to produce fanaticism.


2. Small. Vulgarity and coarseness, want of elegance and sentiment.

4. Moderate. Absence of poetic taste and talent; no refinement.

6. Full. Fancy, taste, and elegance; keen conception of the beautiful.

8. Large. Brilliant and excursive imagination; poetic fervour.

10.Extra large. Poetic and ideal; gorgeous fancy; admiring sublimity.


2. Small. Dull and tedious; no perception of the witty or ludicrous.

4. Moderate. Serious and sober, seldom excited to merriment or wit.

6. Full. Agreeable and facetious, without much original witticism.

8. Large. Gay, witty, and humorous; jovial, and pleasant.

10.Extra large.Brilliant at repartee, extremely witty, fond of the ludicrous.



2. Small. Original and eccentric in manners; failure in copying.

4. Moderate. Inability to copy or act out; dislike to imitate any one.

6. Fall. Respectable talent only in imitating things, but not a mimic.

8. Large. Cleverness in imitating the mechanical and fine arts.

10.Extra large.Great talent for mimicry, caricaturing, or ridiculing.

ORDER 2nd. GENUS 1st.—Intellectual Faculties which perceive existence and physical qualities.



2. Small. Want of observation ; very deficient in noticing minutiæ.

4. Moderate. Absence of the noticing, observing, and retentive powers.

6. Full. Desire to see and become acquainted; facility in acquiring.

8. Large. Acute perception of every thing seen passing around.

10.Extra large.Great talents for observation and critical accuracy.


2. Small. Incorrect conceptions of external appearances.

4. Moderate. A weak memory, and indistinct perceptions of form.

6. Full. Tolerable correctness of memory, moderate skill in drawing.

8. Large. Power of delineating shapes ; distinct memory of persons.

10.Extra large.Very accurate in the perceptions ; great talent for drawing.


2. Small. An extreme difficulty in estimating correct proportions.

4. Moderate. Unable to guess accurately ; indifferent talents for surveying.

6. Full. Fair perception of size, length., and proportion of objects.

8. Large. Correct admeasurement of magnitude, space, distance, &c.

10.Extra large. Perfect judgment of proportion, first-rate geometrical talent.


2. Small. Absence of the talent of discriminating weights.

4. Moderate. Deficiency in making equilibriums and balancing weights.

6. Full. Facility in estimating or trying the weight of anything.

8. Large. Talent for analysing, and harmonising shades of colours.

10.Extra large.Intuitive knowledge of gravitation, momentum, &c.


2. Small. Very defective in discriminating colours.

4. Moderate. Want of talent, and deficiency in skill for painting.

6. Full. Accuracy in judging the effects and combinations of colours.

8. Large. Talent for analysing, and harmonising shades of colours.

10. Extra large. Great memory, judgement, and fondness for colours.


2. Small. Little or no perception of places, localities, distances, &c.

4. Moderate Indifferent memory of positions ; little desire for travelling.

6. Full. A ready perception of localities; talents for engineering.


8. Large. Distinct memory of localities ; fondness for travelling.

10.Extra large.Extraordinary love for travelling ; great recollection of places.


2. Small. Very slow and inaccurate in counting, reckoning, &c.

4. Moderate. Dislike to arithmetic and accounts; deficient in figures.

6. Full. Talent for figures; but a dislike to exercise the faculty.

8. Large. Command of figures, and facility in computing sums.

10.Extra large.Intuitive perception of numbers; great skill in calculating.


2. Small. Confusion, disorder, general want of management.

4. Moderate. Little precision or exactness, and a want of system.

6. Full. Habits of order, but not very particular or attentive to detail.

8. Large. Very Methodical; annoyed at the least confusion.

10.Extra large.Wonderfully precise, love of arrangement for mere arrangement.


2. Small. Completely forgetful of incidents or facts in detail.

4. Moderate. Inability of retaining much, a weakness of memory.

6. Full. Power of remembering leading events, but not the minutiæ.

8. Large. Easily acquiring and retaining knowledge; excellent memory

10.Extra large.Wonderful power of memory and great anxiety for news.


2. Small. Very deficient and forgetful of dates and records.

4. Moderate. Incorrect as to dates; unable to keep or guess time.

6. Full. Proper notions of the lapse of time; a good recollection.

8. Large. Correct ideas of chronological events and history.

10.Extra large.Very clear and correct ideas of time, memory of dates, &c.


2. Small. No appreciation of the science ; inability to learn music.

4. Moderate. Mediocrity of taste in music, deficient in talent or skill.

6. Full. Tolerable capacity for learning, good conception of melody.

8. Large. Great musical taste and judgment; a lover of harmony.

10.Extra large.Great intuitive fondness and ready talent for music.


2. Small. Hesitating, embarrased, deficient and awkward in speech.

4. Moderate. Difficulty in conveying the correct meaning; bad style.

6. Full. Not very communicative or loquacious on ordinary topics.

8. Large. Freedom of expression in conversing, no want of words.

10. Extra large.Eloquent and ready in speaking ; great flow of words.


GENUS 2nd.—Reflective Faculties.



2. Small. Superficial reasoning, no depth of thought or intelligence.

4. Moderate. Tolerable skill, but not much clearness of expression.


6. Full. Fair judgment, good practical talent, and a close observer.

8. Large. Correct powers of analyzing, comparing, and criticising.

10.Extra large. Extraordinary talents, and strong critical judgment.


2. Small. Deficiency in reasoning powers, and weakness of intellect.

4. Moderate. Indifference to metaphysics, little or no inquisitiveness.

6. Full. Disposition for enquiry, but incapable of profound thought.

8. Large. Energetic and active powers of mind, power of reasoning.

10.Extra large.Great originality of thought, and powers of analyzing.





2. Small. Very servile, no desire to be independent.

4. Moderate. Lowly minded, with faint desires of rising above others.

6. Full. Desirous of freedom and independency.

8. Large. A great wish to be beholden to none, to have sufficient.

10.Extra large.Extremely independent; would almost perish than submit.


2. Small. Total dislike of comical sayings and doings.

4. Moderate. Indifference; little or no desire for the comical.

6. Full. A little desire, and often attempting antics.

8. Large. Very fond of the comical, jocular, and pleasant.

10.Extra large.Extremely active, full of tricks, delighting in mischief.


2. Small. Detestation to hurry, slow, and inclined to put off.

4. Moderate. Indifference to hurry, slow, and inactive. [to do them.

6. Full. Rather desirous of having things done with speed; but dislike

8. Large. Fond of quick action ; great dislike to sloth, sharp, active.

10.Extra large.Extremely active; all hurry, seldom still; making mistakes.


2. Small. Great aversion to every thing of a ludicrous kind.

4. Moderate. Indifference to romancing; dislike of caricaturing.

6. Full. Either fond of the ludicrous, often trying to ridicule.

8. Large. Very ludicrous, mocking, ridiculing almost every thing.

10.Extra large.Extremely fond of romancing, and apt to turn every thing into sport.




Sexual love and devotedness. Due regard for children. Ability to control the mind. Love of country. True friendship. Faithfulness. Courage, with a power to control the passions. A desire for food without anxiety. Planning of useful things. Dignity and a desire to have the good opinion of others. Due consideration; kind and munificent. Respectful to superiors and awe of the Deity. Determination without stupidity; strictly just. Cheerful and buoyant ; fond of the sublime; cheerfulness of temper, ability to learn knowledge of individual objects, perception of forms and size investigation of mechanical forces; recollection of objects once seen; calculating cognizance of active and passive occurrences neatness in dress recollections of the elapse of time; love of melody, perception of resemblances; connection between cause and effect; proper feelings of manliness; cheerful and quick in action



Old maidenish; aversion to children ; a roving mind; want of friendship, courage, and determination, want of circumspection, careless about property and knowledge, averse to mechanical pursuits wanting in dignity; indifference about the opinions of others sordid and avaricious; want of humility and firmness, dishonest, melancholy, sceptical, vulgar, and coarse; dull and tedious; very eccentric inability to observe; want of judgment in the forms sizes, weights, colours, numbers, and positions; bad memory; no recollection of time ; distaste for music; bad style in conveying the correct meaning; superficial and narrow minded; mean and subservient, slow, and inactive.




Demoralization of character; pampering and spoiling of children; aversion to the actual duties of life; attachment to worthless objects; contention and love of opposition; hasty in temper; destruction of property and the peace of society; duplicity, enmity, and falsehood; avaricious, theft, and general debasement; invention of useless machinery; waste of time and talent; arrogant, tyrannical, and oppressive; vain and showy; gloomy and despairing; wasteful; too profuse; fantastical and superstitious too subservient to the Creature; stubborn, self willed, and obstinate; an over-charging of oneself to scrupulous castle-building; foolish speculations to great confidence in improbable events; anchoring after trifles; gaudy and showy; sarcastic at the expense of others; ridicule, buffoonry, &c.


Fastidious in apparel; too great an attachment to glaring and gaudy colours; a restless and rambling disposition; impatience and irritation at the slightest breach of rule; cumberance and unpleasing redundance of words in conveying ideas; hasty and inaccurate conclusions ; narrowmindedness, dogmatical, distrusting, credulous and doubting; self-importance, delight in mischief, blundering, ridiculing, romancing, turning the most serious matters into sport, frivolity, &c.






1. Social Feeling.

Amativeness 1

Philoprogenitiveness 2

Adhesiveness 4

2. Defensive, Aggressive, and Preservative Feelings.

Combativeness 5

Destructiveness 6

Alimentiveness *

3. Anti-Social Feelings.

Cautiousness 12

Seoretivene8s 7

Self-Esteem 10

4. Intermediate Regulating Powers.

Acquisitiveness 8

Approbativeness 11

Secretiveness 7

Independence 36

5. Prime Regulating Powers.

Conscientousness 16

Benevolence 23

Veneration 14

6. Religious Feelings.

Veneration 14

Hope 17

Wonder 18

7. Refining and Perfecting Faculties.

Ideality 19

Imitation 21

Causality 35

Comicality 37

8. Musical Faculties.

Imitation 21

Time 31

Tune 32

9. Faculties which form the basis of Drawing.

Form 23

Size 24

Colour 20

10. Mechanical Faculties.

Constructiveness 9

Weight 25

Comparison 34

11. Faculties which form the basis of Mathematical and Arithmetical Sciences.

Locality 27

Number 28

Order 29

12. Faculties which enable one to observe objects and events, languages and general knowledge.

Individuality 22

Eventuality 30

Language 33

Grotesque 39

13. Reflecting, Reasoning or Discriminating Powers.

Comparison 34

Causality 35

Wit & Cheerfulness 20

Velocity 38

14. Powers of Application.

oncentrativeness 31

Firmness 15

Love of Approbation 11

See also: Other phrenological texts on-line


The digital arrangement of this text copyright John van Wyhe, 1999.

RN4 3.2.2003

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