Phrenological bust by LN FowlerPhrenological bust by LN FowlerThe History of Phrenology on the Web

by John van Wyhe

George Combe's A System of Phrenology, 5th edn, 2 vols. 1853.

Vol. 1: [front matter], Intro, Nervous system, Principles of Phrenology, Anatomy of the brain, Division of the faculties 1.Amativeness 2.Philoprogenitiveness 3.Concentrativeness 4.Adhesiveness 5.Combativeness 6.Destructiveness, Alimentiveness, Love of Life 7.Secretiveness 8.Acquisitiveness 9.Constructiveness 10.Self-Esteem 11.Love of Approbation 12.Cautiousness 13.Benevolence 14.Veneration 15.Firmness 16.Conscientiousness 17.Hope 18.Wonder 19.Ideality 20.Wit or Mirthfulness 21.Imitation.
Vol. 2: [front matter], external senses, 22.Individuality 23.Form 24.Size 25.Weight 26.Colouring 27.Locality 28.Number 29.Order 30.Eventuality 31.Time 32.Tune 33.Language 34.Comparison, General observations on the Perceptive Faculties, 35.Causality, Modes of actions of the faculties, National character & development of brain, On the importance of including development of brain as an element in statistical inquiries, Into the manifestations of the animal, moral, and intellectual faculties of man, Statistics of Insanity, Statistics of Crime, Comparative phrenology, Mesmeric phrenology, Objections to phrenology considered, Materialism, Effects of injuries of the brain, Conclusion, Appendices: No. I, II, III, IV, V, [Index], [Works of Combe].

II.-Superior Sentiments.

Hitherto we have considered man so far as he is animal. But besides the organs and faculties already spoken of, common to him and the brutes, he is endowed with a variety of sentiments, which constitute the peculiarly human character. Of these the lower animals appear to be destitute. The convolutions which form the organs of Veneration, Hope, and Conscientiousness in the human brain, run transversely; and in the brains of the lower animals, so far as I have observed,


no corresponding convolutions appear. The organs of Benevolence and Imitation, however, which are here classed among the superior sentiments, run longitudinally, and corresponding parts are found in the brains of the lower animals. In judging of the size of the organs of the superior sentiments, the elevation of the head above the organs of Causality and Cautiousness should always be first observed.


THIS organ is situated at the upper part of the frontal bone, in the coronal aspect, and immediately before the fontanel. When it is large, the frontal bone rises with an arched appearance, above the organ of Comparison ; when small, the forehead is low and retreating. The following cuts exhibit a contrast in this respect ; the skull of Burns being elevated far above the eyes, while that of Griffiths (a murderer) is low and narrow in front. The figures of Gottfried and Eustache, on p. 142, may likewise be compared at this organ.

One of Dr Gall's friends frequently said to him, that, as he sought for external indications of mental qualities, he should examine the head of his servant named Joseph, " It is impossible" said his friend, " to find a greater degree of goodness than that young man possesses. For more than ten years during which he has been in my service, I have


seen him manifest, on all occasions, only benevolence, and sweetness of disposition. This is the more surprising, as he does not possess the advantages of education, and has grown up to manhood among servants of very inferior habits." Dr Gall adds, that, previously to that time, he had been far from supposing that what is called goodness of heart could have any organ in the brain, and, consequently, had never looked for indications of it in the head. The repeated solicitations of his friend, however, at length awakened his curiosity.

He immediately recollected the habitual conduct of a young man whom he had known from his most tender infancy, and who was distinguished from his numerous brothers and sisters by his goodness of heart. Although he was passionately fond of the games proper to his age, and delighted in scouring the forests in search of birds' nests, yet no sooner did any of his brothers or sisters become sick, than an inclination still more powerful kept him at home, and drew from him the most assiduous attentions towards the sufferer. When grapes, or apples, or cherries, were distributed among the children, his share was always the least, and he rejoiced in seeing the others partake more largely than himself. He was never more pleased than when some good fortune happened to those whom he loved, on which occasions he often shed tears of joy. He was fond of taking charge of sheep, dogs, rabbits, pigeons, and birds ; and if one of these birds happened to die, he wept bitterly, which did not fail to draw upon him the ridicule of his companions. Up to the present time, continues Dr Gall, benevolence and goodness are the distinguishing characteristics of this individual. These dispositions certainly did not arise from education ; on the contrary, he had been all along surrounded by those whose conduct was calculated to produce the very opposite results. Dr Gall then began to suspect, that what is called goodness of heart is not an acquired, but an innate, quality of the mind.

On another occasion, amidst a very large family, he spoke of the boasted goodness of heart of the servant Joseph. "Ah!"


said the eldest daughter, "our brother Charles is exactly like him ; you must positively examine his head-I cannot tell you how good a child he is."

"I had thus in my eye," says Dr Gall, "three cases, in which goodness of disposition was strongly marked. I took casts of the heads, placed them beside each other, and continued to examine them until I should discover a development common to the three. This I at last found, although the heads were in other respects very differently formed. In the mean time, I tried to find similar cases in families, schools, &c., that I might be in a condition to multiply and correct my observations. I extended my investigations to animals also, and, in a short time, collected so great a number of facts, that there is no fundamental quality, or faculty, whose existence and organ are better established than those of Benevolence."

The faculty produces desire of the happiness of others, and delight in the diffusion of enjoyment. It disposes to active goodness, and, in cases of distress, to compassion. It is easy to distinguish kindness flowing from this sentiment, from acts of attention arising from Love of Approbation or more interested motives. A warmth and simplicity of manner are communicated by this faculty that touch the mind at once. We feel its character, and recognise it as genuine unalloyed goodness, aiming at no end but the welfare of its object. There is, on the other hand, an air of " empressement" evidently assumed, or of coldness and constraint, attending deeds of kindness proceeding from interested motives, betraying the source from which they flow. The secret spring, and ulterior object, are apparent, notwithstanding the efforts made to conceal them. St Paul gives a beautiful description of the genuine character of this sentiment in his account of Christian charity: "Charity," says he, " suffereth long and is kind ; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself; is not puffed up,'' &c. The good Samaritan mentioned in Scripture, is a delightful in-



stance of the disposition formed by Benevolence when eminently powerful. It is a leading feature also in the character of Addison's Sir Roger de Coverley.

This faculty is a great source of happiness to the possessor. It communicates a lively, amiable, delightful tinge to the impressions received by the mind from without. It produces liberality of sentiment towards all mankind, a disposition to love them, and to dwell on their virtues rather than their vices. A person in whom this feeling is strong, rarely complains of the ingratitude or heartlessness of others. His goodness provides its own reward. The organ appears very large in the mask of Henri Quatre. When some one spoke to him of an officer of the League, by whom he was not loved, he replied, "Je veux lui faire tant de bien, que je le forcerai de ni aimer malgré lui." A person thus endowed is so conscious of wishing well to others, that he hardly doubts of their good-will towards himself. Adhesiveness attaches us to friends and to countrymen ; but Benevolence brings the whole human race within the circle of our affections. Fenelon exhibited a beautiful manifestation of it, when he said, "I am a true Frenchman, and love my country ; but I love mankind better than my country." It inspired Henri Quatre also when he replied to those who exhorted him to rigour towards some places which had joined the league ; " La satisfaction qu'on tire de la vengeance ne dure qu'un moment ; mais celle qu'on tire de la clémence est éternelle." The organ is large, and very distinctly marked, in the mask of Jacob Jervis, presented by Dr Abel to the Phrenological Society, and represented in this work under the head of Imitation. That individual possessed the sentiment in so high a degree, that he was obliged to hide himself when he saw persons coming to make improper solicitations, being conscious of his inability to resist them. The organ is extremely developed also in the head of a Negro named Eustache, who lived for a considerable time in Paris, and in whom the feeling was excessively strong. The cut represents a section of his head across Benevolence. During



the insurrection of the blacks in St Domingo, and the massacre by them of the whites, Eustache, while in the capacity of a slave, saved, by his address, courage, and devotion, the lives of his master, and upwards of 400 other whites at the daily risk of his own safety, yet without betraying the negroes. Indeed, his disinterested exertions on behalf of his master were unbounded, and when the latter, in consequence of weakness of the eyes, became unable to amuse himself by reading, Eustache taught himself to read, in order that he might have the satisfaction of whiling away his master's long and sleepless hours. In Paris he was constantly occupied in doing good, and on meeting a beggar could hardly refrain from giving away all that was in his possession. His merits were publicly recognised by the Institute, from whom he obtained the prize of virtue on the 9th of August 1832.1

It is a vulgar idea that this faculty cannot be manifested, except in bestowing alms or money. It may be exerted in the domestic circle, and in society, in a thousand ways, productive of advantage, without being accompanied by donation. It is benevolence to those with whom we live to order our arrangements with a due regard to their comfort and happiness, and not to deny them proper gratifications ; it is benevolence to suppress our own humours and tendencies, when these would give unnecessary pain to others ; to restrain Self-Esteem and Destructiveness in our commands ; to be mild and merciful in our censures ; to exert our influence and authority to promote the welfare of others ; and one of the most benevolent of all exercises is to visit the

1 Journal de Id Soc. Phrén. de Paris for 1834, and April 1835; also Phren. Jour, ix, 134; and Vimont's Treatise on Phrenology.


poor and vicious, when suffering and wretched, even with the view of administering only the pecuniary bounty of others. It is an essential element also in true politeness. Deficiency of Benevolence does not produce cruelty or any positively bad sentiment ; but it leads to regardlessness of the welfare of others. When the organ is small, a powerful restraint is withdrawn from the lower propensities. In Bellingham, Hare, Griffiths, and other cold-blooded and deliberate murderers, the organ is decidedly deficient. Those in whom this organ is less than Acquisitiveness and Self-Esteem, rarely feel themselves called on to join in works of charity, to contribute to subscriptions, or to bestow personal exertions for the benefit of others ; they generally urge the apology, that they have enough to do with themselves, and that nobody manifests benevolence towards them. This latter excuse may be just ; for it is in the nature of all the higher sentiments to be doubly rewarded--first, in the enjoyment which attends the very exercise of them ; and, secondly, in the kindly feelings which are generated in others by their manifestation. Closely connected as men are in society, and dependent, in a greater or less degree, on each other for prosperity and happiness, no individual can enjoy, or leave to his children, if they possess good moral and intellectual qualities, a richer and more valuable treasure than the esteem and affection of his fellows, founded on respect and gratitude for his own virtues and generosity. Such advantages, indeed, the selfish man cannot enjoy ; for his conduct excites no benevolence in others towards him, and his selfishness becomes the more necessary, as he has chosen it as his stay. When large Acquisitiveness and Self-Esteem are combined with this organ small, the individual will be an utter disbeliever in disinterested goodness, and will regard generosity, which has no selfish end, as imbecility. Such a combination, also, if joined with much Destructive-ness, probably leads its possessor to doubt of the benevolence of the Supreme Being. Deficiency of the organ, in short, exposes the mind to the predominance of the lower feelings,


and the temper is then apt to become cold, harsh, sour, and unhappy. There is little sympathy with enjoyment ; the face of creation does not appear to smile ; moral and physical objects are viewed on their darkest sides ; and if Destructiveness be large, the mind steels itself with malignity, as a defence against their imagined evil qualities-misanthropy, in short, is the result. The character of Lucifer, as drawn by Milton, and by Byron in his drama of Cain, is a personification of great Destructiveness and Intellect, with an utter destitution of Benevolence.

The organ is small in tribes of men remarkable for cruelty ; for example, in the Caribs. In the representations of Tiberius, Caligula, Caracalla, Nero, Catherine of Medicis, Christian the Cruel, Danton, and Robespierre, says Dr Gall, the organ is deficient ; while it is large in Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Henri Quatre, and other individuals distinguished for benevolent feeling.

Benevolence, admirable as it is in its own nature, requires to be directed by Conscientiousness and Intellect, otherwise it produces abuses. When too powerful, and not so guided, it leads to profusion. This kind of facility is not the effect of mere weakness of reasoning power ; it arises from an over-ready disposition to give, without an adequate motive or consideration, for the mere pleasure of bestowing. Benevolence very powerful, with deficient Firmness, may lead also to the sacrifice of the just interests of the individual, to the necessities or cupidity of others. In short, this sentiment, indulged without consideration, may produce many evil consequences ; indiscriminate donations to beggars in the street, for example, encourage profligacy ; and compulsory assessments for support of the poor have often fostered recklessness and idleness. It can never be sufficiently inculcated, that the functions of the different faculties of the mind are distinct, that those which feel give merely an impulse in general, and that Nature intended them to be placed under the direction of the faculties which reason. Hence, the individual who instinctively feels a


vivid compassion for every object in distress, should consider, that this impulse is not the voice of inspiration directing him. to the mode in which it should be indulged. On the contrary, the stronger the emotion, the power of direction is not unfrequently the weaker ; because the feeling is in itself of so excellent a character, and so delightful, that the man who is inspired by it is the last to suspect the necessity of much consideration in regard to the mode in which it is employed. On the other hand, however, it must also be remembered, that the faculties which reason do not feel Benevolence, and that, hence, that individual is most fitted to mature wise plans of charity, who enjoys a large endowment of this sentiment, combined with powerful intellectual faculties duly cultivated.

It has been objected, that Nature cannot have placed a faculty of Benevolence, and another of Destructiveness, in. the same mind. But man is confessedly an assemblage of various qualities. Sir W. Scott speaks of " the well-known cases of men of undoubted benevolence of character and disposition, whose principal delight is to see a miserable criminal, degraded alike by his previous crimes and the sentence which he has incurred, conclude a vicious and a wretched life, by an ignominious and cruel death."1 This indicates Benevolence co-existing in the same individual with Destructiveness. The greatest of poets has said,-

" O thou goddess,

Thou divine Nature,
how thyself thou blazon'st
In these two princely boys !
They are as gentle
As zephyrs, blowing below the violet,
Not wagging his sweet head ; and yet as rough,
Their royal blood enchaff'd, as the rud'st wind,
That by the top doth take the mountain-pine,
And make him stoop to the vale."

Here Shakspeare informs us, that these boys manifested

1 St Ronan's Well.


much Combativeness and Destructivness, combined with great Benevolence.

The skull of Burns indicates large Combativeness, Destructiveness, and Self-Esteem, combined with large Benevolence and full Conscientiousness ; and Dr Currie, his accomplished biographer, describes his character thus : " By nature kind, brave, sincere, and in a singular degree compassionate, he was, on the other hand, proud, irascible, and vindictive ;" indicating, in the clearest manner, the co-existence in him of the organs before named.

The sword is one of the emblems of State, and what is it but the symbol of destruction ready to fall on the heads of those who offend against the laws I-ministering thus, in its very severity, to purposes of Benevolence and Justice. What are the implements of war but instruments of destruction ; and for what end do soldiers take the field, but to destroy their enemies ? And yet, surgeons and numerous assistants attend on armies, to succour those on whom the calamities of war have fallen ; the two faculties, which are deemed incompatible, being thus manifested together, with deliberate design. Without Combativeness and Destructiveness there would be no war ; and without Benevolence, if these existed, there would be neither mercy nor compassion. Instead, therefore, of the co-existence of these faculties forming an objection to the phrenological system, it proves its harmony with nature.1

Benevolence cannot be compensated by Adhesiveness and Conscientiousness, or any other faculties. A daughter, wife, or sister, who possesses large Benevolence, will, at a sickbed, shew an anxiety to alleviate suffering, a softness and sympathy of manner, and, if intellect is possessed, a fertility of invention in devising means of relief, that will be truly admirable, and to the patient invaluable : But if this organ be deficient, although the attendant may, through Intellect and Conscientiousness, do every thing that is suggested by

1 Lord Kames mentions several instances of the combined action of Destructiveness and Benevolence in his Sketches, B. I. Sk. 5, See also Phren. Journ. i. 192; ix. 67, 417.


others, she will neither sympathize with, nor spontaneously labour to assuage, the patient's pain. This observation applies to every department of life in which Benevolence can be manifested. When it is small, the well-spring of goodness flowing towards misery is absent.

Dr Vimont mentions that he has seen persons become unwell just before witnessing the operation of blood-letting ; but he is convinced that this does not arise from the action of Benevolence, but from an affection of the propensity to self-preservation, one effect of which, when painfully excited, is to produce a trouble which suspends the circulation. He has not observed that these persons were, on this account, more soft, more generous, in short more benevolent, than others. I have observed several individuals who were liable to faint on seeing blood flowing, and remarked that Benevolence was large in their heads, and Destructiveness small or moderate.

Dr Gall refers not only the feeling of benevolence, but the sentiment of justice, to the faculty now under consideration. " The reader will remember," says he, " that I could not discover the functions of the different organs, except when I met with them in a state of extreme development, and when, consequently, the faculties were manifested with excessive energy. A mental power, in a state of high excitement, sometimes exhibits a character quite different in appearance from its ordinary form of manifestation. Libertinism is the consequence of over-activity of Amativeness, and theft of Acquisitiveness. It is the same with Benevolence. The individuals who had become remarkable on account of uncommon goodness of heart, presented an extreme development of the organ in question. Consequently, goodness, benevolence, sensibility to distress, are not the primitive destination, or ordinary function of this organ ; but the manifestation of its exalted condition. Benevolence, therefore, is something more than the primitive function of the organ from which it proceeds. What is the original sentiment ? It being extremely difficult to make positive observations on the fundamental destination of an organ, I am obliged." con-


tinues Dr Gall, " to resort to reasoning : and I think there are plausible grounds for holding, that the primitive tendency connected with this organ is that which disposes man to conduct suitable to the maintenance of social order : I call it the moral sense, the sentiment of justice and injustice?' He proceeds with a variety of arguments, and arrives at the conclusion, that Benevolence " n'est qu' un degré d'action plus élevé du sens moral."1

Dr Spurzheim dissents from this view, and holds Conscientiousness to be a distinct sentiment, of which he has discovered and established the organ ; although it was not admitted by Dr Gall. There are only two ways of settling this dispute ; the one by metaphysical analysis of the feeling, and the other by observation of the organ. The result of both appears to me to be in favour of Dr Spurzheim. Dr Vimont also agrees with Dr Spurzheim on this point.- I shall revert to the subject when treating of the organ of Conscientiousness.

In another point, also, in regard to this organ, Dr Spurzheim differs from Dr Gall, and apparently on good grounds. " An opinion of Dr Gall,'' says he, " of which I cannot approve, is, that Benevolence may degenerate into bad temper, and into the propensity to rejoice in the evil that happens to others, in the same way as the sense of taste may degenerate into disgust at food, physical love into aversion to the other sex, and the sense of melody to aversion to music. The inactivity of Benevolence, or its exhausted state, may produce indifference to its functions, and make us avoid any opportunity of doing beneficent actions ; but active wickedness, and pleasure in the pains of others, like cruelty, depend on inferior feelings, unaccompanied by superior sentiments."2

This organ is found in the lower animals, and when it is largely developed, they are mild and docile ; whereas, when it is deficient, they are vicious, ill-natured, and intractable. Dr Gall gives some interesting illustrations of this fact. The

1 Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome v. p. 273, et sequen.

3 Phrenology, p. 190.


head of the Tiger, says he, is more flat at this part than that of the lion ; and the heads of the hyaena and wolf are more depressed than that of the dog. The organ is greatly depressed immediately above the level of the eyes, in the baboon ; while, on the contrary, it is elevated in the ouran-outang ; and the dispositions of all these animals are in accordance with their development. In the horse the organ is placed in the middle of the forehead, a little above the eyes. When this region is hollow and narrow, a horse is invariably vicious, and disposed to bite and to kick. In mild and good-natured horses, on the contrary, this part stands as far out as the eyes, or even farther. The driver of a cabriolet of Neuilly, says Dr Gall, bought, at a low price, a horse which nobody could use on account of its extremely bad temper ; but it was an excellent runner. In the first week it bit off two of the driver's fingers, and one of his ears. He attempted to correct it by redoubled blows, but these rendered it only more vicious. He then resolved to try the effect of gentle treatment, and this succeeded to a certain extent. The organ in question was very small in this animal ; and the same conformation will be found in all horses which require to be muzzled, to prevent them from biting. On one occasion, a gentleman in the country mentioned at his dinner-table, that he had two horses, one extremely mild, and the other very vicious in temper. They were brought out into the stable-yard, and, by examining their heads according to Dr Gall's directions, I pointed out each, without having previously seen them. The difference was so great, that several persons who were present recognised it the moment they were told where to look for it. I have seen this experiment repeated with invariable success.

The same rule holds in regard to dogs. Dr Gall saved two puppies of a litter of five, and watched their dispositions with the closest attention. Even before their eyes were opened he remarked a great difference between them : one of them, when taken into the hand, testified by its gestures, that it was pleased ; the other growled, whined, and strug-


gled till it was put down. Scarcely were they fifteen days old, when one indicated, by the motions of its tail, contentment and gentleness, not only towards other little dogs, but to persons who approached it ; the other, on the contrary, never ceased to grumble, and to bite every one within its reach. Aware how much was attributed to education, Dr Gall charged those who habitually approached these animals to bestow equal caresses on each. He himself took the greatest pains to soften the disposition of the ill-natured one ; but nothing could change its character. It bit even its mother, if she chanced to incommode it. In the sixth month, the dogs were seized with distemper, and with whatever degree of gentleness they were treated, the one never ceased to growl and bite, till death put an end to its efforts ; while the other, on the contrary, till its last moment, gave the most striking marks of attachment and gratitude to those who took charge of it. Even the servants were forcibly struck with the difference in the dispositions of these animals. Dr Gall states, that the difference in their heads was equally conspicuous.

In observing this organ in the lower animals, it is necessary to be acquainted with the osteology of their skulls, to be able correctly to distinguish its place. In some of them, such as the elephant, the sow, &c., the two tables of the skull are not parallel at this part, and hence the size of the organ in them cannot be ascertained except by dissection. In the bull and cow, the inner table is separated to some distance from the external table, but the two tables are parallel in the region of this organ, and on this account its size may be judged of during life. The same is the case, says Dr Gall, with the cat,1

" There are examples," says Dr Spurzheim, " on record, where animals have shewn high degrees of benevolence to others, and even to man. A respectable family of Paris told me, that they had a horse and a cow living together in the same stable ; that the horse several times got untied, went

1 Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome v. p. 327.


to the corner where the sack of oats stood, and drew it in his teeth near the cow ; probably to make her partake of the good cheer. Many dogs also exhibit the same feeling. Dupont de Nemours saw a swallow caught by one foot in the noose of a pack-thread attached to the roof of the French Institute at Paris. The prisoner screamed and attracted all the swallows of the neighbourhood. After a long and tumultuous consultation, a great number formed a line, one after another darted at the pack-thread with their bills, and in half an hour delivered the captive.1

Some incidents of a similar nature have happened in this country. Dr Millar favoured me with the following statement :-" The Reverend Dr Wodrow, late of Stevenston in Ayrshire, when clergyman of Dunlop, a parish in the same county, narrated a curious fact, concerning swallows, in a letter to his relative, Mrs Thomson of Edinburgh. ' At Dunlop manse,' says he, ' in a very dry summer, one of their nests, attached to the corner of the parlour window, fell down, and lay on the window-sill, without any damage done either to the nest or its helpless inhabitants, four or five young ones. It was a few minutes before breakfast, when I observed the accident ; and soon after it happened, I went out, and carefully placed it on the top of a cut hedge, and I waited to see the event. It was pleasant to see the young ones fed at proper intervals, and, at the same time, a great number of other swallows jointly and busily employed, in a warm summer morning, in building a new nest in the same place with the former ; some of them bringing clay, straws. &c. ; others making use of these materials ; others dipping themselves into an open well, and plashing the walls of the nest ; and all of them cheering one another to the useful work. In two hours the new nest was completely finished, and then the young ones were carried through the air under the wings of one, sometimes two, old swallows, and safely placed in their lodging ; after which the noise and cheering of the

1 Phrenology, p. 188.


troop ceased.' " Dr Poole also stated to me, that a cat having seized a young sparrow, a flock of these birds perceiving it, attacked the cat, fastened on its back, pecked and flapped till they made it quit its prey, and rescued the intended victim. This happened in a garden behind St John Street, Edinburgh, and was witnessed by a neighbour of Dr Poole's, who communicated the circumstances to him. Dogs also are known to precipitate themselves into water, to save persons in danger of being drowned ; and they attack with fury assassins who assail their masters.

The activity of this sentiment is productive of so much benefit in society, that its cultivation ought to be specially attended to in the training of children. The experience of the teachers of infant-schools shews how much may be done in adding to its energy.1

I have mentioned before, that stimulating liquors, by exciting the organs, give energy to the feelings or propensities which depend on them for the means of manifestation. Some individuals become excessively profuse when intoxicated. They would then give the world away ; or if they had the power, they would create a new one, in which every individual should enjoy infinite happiness. On the principle that intoxication can never create any feeling, I am inclined to think that such persons have naturally a large endowment of Benevolence, the organ of which is stimulated to this great activity by strong potations. This, however, is only a conjecture.

The organ is liable to excessive excitement by disease. Dr Gall mentions the case of a hussar, who had always manifested great benevolence of disposition, and subsequently became insane. He gave away all his clothes, and left himself absolutely naked ; he never ceased repeating, that he wished to make every one happy, and he introduced into all his projects of beneficence the Holy Trinity. In his head the organs of Benevolence and Veneration were extremely

' See Phren Journ. vi. 120, 428.


developed. Idiots in whom this organ is large, are good-natured and harmless ; while those in whom it is small, if Destructiveness be large, are mischievous and wicked.

" I once knew a man, says Dr Benjamin Rush, who discovered no one mark of reason, who possessed the moral sense or faculty in so high a degree, that he spent his whole life in acts of benevolence. He was not only inoffensive (which is not always the case with idiots), but he was kind and affectionate to every body. He had no ideas of time, but what were suggested to him by the returns of the stated periods for public worship, in which he appeared to take great delight. He spent several hours of every day, in devotion, in which he was so careful to be private, that he was once found in the most improbable place in the world for that purpose, viz., in an oven."-An Enquiry into the Influence of Physical Causes upon the Moral Faculty.-Philadelphia, 1786, p. 8.

The existence of Benevolence, as an innate sentiment of the human mind, is distinctly recognised by Lord Bacon in one of his Essays. " I take goodness, " says he, " in this sense, the affecting of the weal of men, which is what the Grecians call philanthropia ; and the word humanity (as it is used) is a little too light to express it. Goodness I call the habit, and goodness of nature the inclination. This, of all virtues and dignities of the mind, is the greatest, being the character of the Deity ; and, without it, man is a busy, mischievous, wretched thing, no better than a kind of vermin. The inclination to goodness is imprinted deeply in the nature of man, insomuch that if it issue not towards men, it will take unto other living creatures ; as it is seen in the Turks, a cruel people, who, nevertheless, are kind to beasts, give alms to dogs and birds ; insomuch that, as Busbechius reporteth, a Christian boy in Constantinople had like to have been stoned for gagging, in a waggishness, a long-billed fowl."

The Scotch metaphysicians in general admit the existence of this sentiment ; but Hobbes, and many other metaphysical



writers, who resolve all our actions into selfishness, deny it. Dr Thomas Brown successfully and beautifully answers the objection, that we are selfish even in our feelings of good-will. " The analysis of love," says he, " as a complex feeling, presents to us always at least two elements ; a vivid delight in the contemplation of the object, and a desire of good to that object. Though we cannot, then, when there is no interfering passion, think of the virtues of others without pleasure, and must, therefore, in loving virtue, love what is by its own nature pleasing, the love of the virtue which cannot exist without the pleasure, is surely an affection very different from the love of the mere pleasure existing, if it had been possible for it to exist, without the virtue,-a pleasure that accompanies the virtue, only as the soft or brilliant colouring of nature flows from the great orb above,-a gentle radiance that is delightful to our eyes, indeed, and to our heart, but which leads our eye upward to the splendid source from which it flows, and our heart, still higher, to that being by whom the sun was made."1

Mr Robert Cox has published, in the tenth volume of The Phrenological Journal, p. 1., an elaborate essay on " the laws of action of Benevolence ;" in which he adduces a variety of facts and arguments to shew that the power and activity of this organ are increased by the agreeable or pleasurable action of the organs of the other mental powers, in the same way as destructiveness receives excitement when their action is disagreeable. Hence he regards happiness as conducive to generosity and sweetness of temper, and misery as tending to render the disposition sour and irritable ; and from these principles practical results of great importance are deduced.

The organ is regarded as established.

1 Lecture 59, vol. iii. p. 241.

Vol. 1: [front matter], Intro, Nervous system, Principles of Phrenology, Anatomy of the brain, Division of the faculties 1.Amativeness 2.Philoprogenitiveness 3.Concentrativeness 4.Adhesiveness 5.Combativeness 6.Destructiveness, Alimentiveness, Love of Life 7.Secretiveness 8.Acquisitiveness 9.Constructiveness 10.Self-Esteem 11.Love of Approbation 12.Cautiousness 13.Benevolence 14.Veneration 15.Firmness 16.Conscientiousness 17.Hope 18.Wonder 19.Ideality 20.Wit or Mirthfulness 21.Imitation.
Vol. 2: [front matter], external senses, 22.Individuality 23.Form 24.Size 25.Weight 26.Colouring 27.Locality 28.Number 29.Order 30.Eventuality 31.Time 32.Tune 33.Language 34.Comparison, General observations on the Perceptive Faculties, 35.Causality, Modes of actions of the faculties, National character & development of brain, On the importance of including development of brain as an element in statistical inquiries, Into the manifestations of the animal, moral, and intellectual faculties of man, Statistics of Insanity, Statistics of Crime, Comparative phrenology, Mesmeric phrenology, Objections to phrenology considered, Materialism, Effects of injuries of the brain, Conclusion, Appendices: No. I, II, III, IV, V, [Index], [Works of Combe].

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