Phrenological bust by LN FowlerPhrenological bust by LN FowlerThe History of Phrenology on the Web

by John van Wyhe

George Combe's A System of Phrenology, 5th edn, 2 vols. 1853.

Vol. 1: [front matter], Intro, Nervous system, Principles of Phrenology, Anatomy of the brain, Division of the faculties 1.Amativeness 2.Philoprogenitiveness 3.Concentrativeness 4.Adhesiveness 5.Combativeness 6.Destructiveness, Alimentiveness, Love of Life 7.Secretiveness 8.Acquisitiveness 9.Constructiveness 10.Self-Esteem 11.Love of Approbation 12.Cautiousness 13.Benevolence 14.Veneration 15.Firmness 16.Conscientiousness 17.Hope 18.Wonder 19.Ideality 20.Wit or Mirthfulness 21.Imitation.
Vol. 2: [front matter], external senses, 22.Individuality 23.Form 24.Size 25.Weight 26.Colouring 27.Locality 28.Number 29.Order 30.Eventuality 31.Time 32.Tune 33.Language 34.Comparison, General observations on the Perceptive Faculties, 35.Causality, Modes of actions of the faculties, National character & development of brain, On the importance of including development of brain as an element in statistical inquiries, Into the manifestations of the animal, moral, and intellectual faculties of man, Statistics of Insanity, Statistics of Crime, Comparative phrenology, Mesmeric phrenology, Objections to phrenology considered, Materialism, Effects of injuries of the brain, Conclusion, Appendices: No. I, II, III, IV, V, [Index], [Works of Combe].


THIS organ is situated at that part of the frontal bone immediately above the spheno-temporal suture. It lies on the posterior lateral portion of the super-orbitar plate. Its ap-

1 This, however, may arise from the love of place.


pearance and situation vary slightly, according to the development of the neighbouring parts. If the zygomatic process is very projecting, or if the middle lobes of the brain or the forehead in general, or the organs of Language and Order in particular, are greatly developed, its size is less easily distinguished. The leading object should be to determine the actual size of each organ, and not its mere prominence ; and, on this account, it is proper farther to notice, that if the base of the brain is narrow, this organ holds a situation a little higher than usual, and there will then frequently be found a slight depression at the external angle of the eye, between the zygomatic process and the organ in question, especially when the muscles are thin. In such eases, Constructiveness has sometimes appeared as high up as Tune generally occurs. This slight variation from uniformity of situation occurs in the distribution of all the parts of the body : but the anatomist is not, on this account, embarrassed in his operations ; for the aberration never exceeds certain limits and he acquires, by experience, the tact of recognising the part by its general appearance.

It has been objected, that the elevation or depression of this part of the brain depends on the force with which the temporal muscles, which lie over it, have acted in the individual: carnivorous animals, it is said, which masticate bones, possess those muscles in a very powerful degree, and in consequence they have the zygomatic arch large, and the skull narrow, and little brain in the region of this organ.

The answer to this objection is fourfold. First, The form of the head alluded to, occurs in the foetus of carnivorous animals, and cannot therefore be the effect of the action of their jaws on hard substances. Secondly, Carnivorous animals, which did not build, such as the dog, the lion, the tiger, want the organ in question, and have narrow heads. The absence of the organ, the narrowness of their heads, and their want of constructive power, are facts in exact accordance with Phrenology. Thirdly, Carnivorous animals which do, in some degree construct, such as the fox, the badger, and


the polecat, possess the organ, and their heads are broader at this part than those of animals which do not construct, which also is in accordance with Phrenology. Fourthly, In the rodentia it enlarges the anterior and inferior angle of the parietal bone, and the portion of the frontal bone which articulates with this angle.1 The beaver cuts timber with its teeth, and its temporal muscles act with great energy ; yet the organ is large, the head is broad, and the animal is highly constructive-all which circumstances harmonize with our doctrine, and contradict that of the objectors. Lastly, In the human race, the size of the head, at the region in question, does not bear a proportion to the force with which mastication is performed ; for some individuals, who live chiefly on slops, and chew little, have narrow heads and weak constructive talents, while others, who eat hard viands, have broad heads, and manifest great mechanical skill. The actual size of the head in this quarter, from whatever cause it arises, bears a regular proportion to the actual endowment of constructive ability.

The temporal muscles differ in thickness in different persons, and the phrenologist should desire the individual observed, to move the lower jaw, and, while he does so, he should feel the muscle, and allow for its size. The uncertainty in regard to the dimensions of the temporal muscle, renders it unsafe to predicate the size of the organs of Constructiveness and Acquisitiveness from casts of the head, unless information as to the thickness of the fleshy fibres be communicated. This organ, therefore, is best established by examining living heads, or skulls, or casts of skulls.

When Dr Gall first turned his attention to the talent for construction, manifested by some individuals, he had not discovered the fact that every primitive faculty is connected with a particular part of the brain as its organ ; and, on this account, he directed his observations to the whole heads of great mechanicians. He was frequently struck with the

1 Vimont, Traite de Phrenologie, tome ii. p. 353.


circumstance, that the heads of such artists were as broad in the temporal region as at the cheek-bones. This, however, although occurring frequently, was not a uniform characteristic ; and hence he was led by degrees to believe, that the talent depended on a particular power. In order to find out an indication of it in the head, he sought acquaintance with men of distinguished mechanical genius wherever he found them, studied the forms of their heads, and moulded them. He soon met with some in whom the diameter from temple to temple was greater than that from the one zygomatic bone to the other ; and at last found two celebrated mechanicians, in whom there appeared two swellings, round and distinct, at the temples. These heads convinced him, that it is not the circumstance of equality in the zygomatic and temporal diameters which indicates a genius for mechanical construction, but a round protuberance in the temporal region, situated in some individuals a little behind, in others a little behind and above the eye. This development is always found in concomitance with great constructive talent ; and when the zygomatic diameter is equal to it, then there is a parallelism of the face ; but, as the zygomatic bone is not connected with the organ, and projects more or less in different individuals, this form of countenance is not invariably the concomitant of constructive talent, and ought not be taken as the measure of the development of the organ.

Having thus obtained some idea of the seat and external appearance of the organ, Dr Gall assiduously multiplied observations. At Vienna, some gentlemen of distinction brought to him a person, concerning whose talents they solicited his opinion. He stated that he ought to have a great tendency towards mechanics. The gentlemen imagined that he was mistaken, but the subject of the experiment was greatly struck with this observation : he was the famous painter Unterbergen. To shew that Dr Gall had judged with perfect accuracy, he declared that he had always had a passion for the mechanical arts, and that he painted only for a livelihood. He carried the party to his house, where he shewed


them a multitude of machines and instruments, some of which he had invented, and others improved. Besides, Dr Gall remarks, that the talent for design, so essential to a painter, is connected with the organ of Constructiveness, so that the art which he practised publicly was a manifestation of the faculty.1

Several of Dr Gall's auditors spoke to him of a man who was gifted with an extraordinary talent for mechanics ; Gall described to them beforehand what form of head he ought to have, and they went to visit him : it was the ingenious mathematical instrument-maker Lindner, at Vienna ; and his temples rose out in two little rounded irregular prominences. Dr Gall had previously found the same form of head in the celebrated mechanician and astronomer David, Augustine friar, and in the famous Voigtlaender, mathematical instrument-maker. At Paris, Prince Schwartzenberg, then Minister of Austria, wished to put Drs Gall and Spurzheim to the test. When they rose from table, he conducted Dr Gall into an adjoining apartment, and shewed him a young man :

1 Dr Scheel of Copenhagen had attended a course of Dr Gall's lectures at Vienna, from which city he went to Rome. One day lie entered abruptly, when Dr Gall was surrounded by his pupils, and, presenting to him the cast of a skull, asked his opinion of it. Dr Gall instantly said, that he <' had never seen the organ of Constructiveness so largely developed as in the head in question." Scheel continued his interrogatories. Dr Gall then pointed out also a large development of the organs of Amativeness and Imitation. " How do you find the organ of Colouring V-'' I had not previously adverted to it," said Gall, " for it is only moderately developed." Scheel replied, with much satisfaction, " that it was a cast of the skull of Raphael." The skull from which the cast was taken was preserved in the Academy of St Luke at Rome, and was universally mentioned as being that of Raphael ; so that Dr Scheel acted in perfect good faith on this occasion. It has been since discovered that the skull was not that of Raphael. Dr Gall merely stated the development which he observed in it ; and it remains as striking an example of that development as ever-As, however, the mental qualities of the individual are unknown, it affords no evidence for or against Phrenology, and I therefore omit farther mention of it in this edition. It is now said to have been the skull of Adjutorio, a celebrated amateur in the fine arts, who founded St Luke's Academy. See Phrenological Journal, vol. ix. p, 92.


without speaking a word, he and the Prince rejoined the company, and he requested Dr Spurzheim to go and examine the young man's head. During his absence, Dr Gall told the company what he thought of the youth. Dr Spurzheim immediately returned, and said, that he believed him to be a great mechanician, or an eminent artist in some constructive branch. The Prince, in fact, had brought him to Paris on account of his great mechanical talents, and supplied him with the means of following out his studies.

Dr Gall adds, that, at Vienna, and in the whole course of his travels, he had found this organ developed in mechanicians, architects,-designers, and sculptors, in proportion to their talent.

He mentions, that, at Mulhausen, the manufacturers do not receive into their employment any children except those who, from an early age, have displayed a talent for the arts, in drawing or clipping figures ; because they know, from experience, that such children alone become expert and intelligent workmen.

Dr Spurzheim mentions the case of a milliner of Vienna, who was remarkable for constructive talent in her art, and in whom the organ is large. A cast of her skull is in the Phrenological Society's collection, and it presents two small round eminences at the situation of the organ.

These figures represent the skulls of an ancient Greek and a New Hollander. In the New Hollander, the skull at Constructiveness falls greatly within the line of the cheek-bones ; while in the Greek, the skull swells out at that organ. " The natives of New Holland," says Sir Walter Scott. " are, even


at present, in the very lowest scale of humanity, and ignorant of every art which can add comfort or decency to human life. These unfortunate savages use no clothes, construct no cabins or huts, and are ignorant even of the manner of chasing animals, or catching fish, unless such of the latter as are left by the tide, or which are found on the rocks."

Dr Broussais mentions, that in the last voyage made by Captain Durville, Messrs Quoy and Gaimard, who accompanied the expedition in the capacity of surgeons and naturalists, had observed that the organ of Constructiveness is extremely defective in the New Hollanders, whom they visited, and who construct neither habitations, clothes, nor implements of art for their own accommodation, while the organ was well marked in the New Zealanders, who shew a talent for architecture, and build houses for themselves with a good deal of art. These gentlemen knew something of Phrenology, and were capable of making and reporting these observations.1

When Dr Spurzheim was in Edinburgh in 1817, he visited the work-shop of Mr James Milne, brass-founder (a gentleman who himself displays no small ingenuity in his trade, and in whom Constructiveness is largely developed), and examined the heads of his apprentices. The following is Mr Milne's account of what took place upon the occasion :

" On the first boy presented to Dr Spurzheim, on his entering the shop, he observed, that he would excel in any thing he was put to. In this he was perfectly correct, as he was one of the cleverest boys I ever had. On proceeding farther, Dr Spurzheim remarked of another boy, that he would make a good workman. In this instance, also, his observation was well-founded. An elder brother of his was working next him, who, he said, would also turn out a good workman, but not equal to the other. I mentioned, that, in point of fact, the former was the better, although both were good. In the course of farther observations, Dr Spurzheim remarked of others, that they ought to be ordinary trades-

1 Cours de Phrénologie, p. 274.


men, and they were so. At last he pointed out one, who, he said, ought to be of a different cast, and of whom I would never be able to make any thing as a workman, and this turned out to be too correct; for the bay served an apprenticeship of seven years, and, when done, he was not able to do one-third of the work performed by other individuals, to whose instruction no greater attention had been paid. So much was I struck with Dr Spurzheim's observations, and so correct have I found the indications presented by the organization to be, that when workmen, or boys to serve as apprentices, apply to me, I at once give the preference to those possessing a large Constructiveness ; and if the deficiency is very great, I would be disposed to decline receiving them, being convinced of their inability to succeed."

The organ of this faculty is very largely developed in Sir Mark I. Brunei, the celebrated engineer of the Thames Tunnel, and the inventor of machinery for making blocks for the rigging of ships, by means of steam; and who has, besides, shewn a great talent for mechanics in numerous departments of art. It is large in Edwards, an eminent engraver ; in Wilkie, Haydon, and J. F. Williams, celebrated painters ; in Sir W-Herschel, whose great discoveries in astronomy arose from the excellence of his telescopes, made by his own hands ; and in Mr Samuel Joseph, an eminent sculptor. Masks of all these individuals are to be seen in the Phrenological Society's collection. In the late Sir Henry Raeburn, who was bred a goldsmith, but became a painter by the mere impulse of nature, without teaching, and without opportunities of study, I observed it large. It is large, also, in Mr Scoular, a sculptor, who displayed this talent at a very early age. I have noticed it large in all the eminent operative surgeons of Edinburgh, in distinguished engravers, and also in cabinet-makers and tailors who excel in their art. It and Form are large in children who are fond of clipping and drawing figures. The organ is well developed in many of the Esquimaux, who shew considerable constructive talent.1 It is large in most of the ancient Greeks in the Society's Museum. The busts also of ' Phren, Journ. viii. p. 425.


eminent artists of former ages display a great development of this organ ; in particular, in that of Michael Angelo, in the church of Santa Croce at Florence, the breadth from temple to temple is enormous. The reflective organs, situated in the forehead, and likewise Ideality, are in him very large ; and these add understanding and taste to the talent for and love of constructing works of art.

On the other hand, I possess a cast of the head of a very ingenious friend distinguished for his talents as an author, who has often complained of so great a want of constructive ability, that he found it difficult even to learn to write ; and, in his head, although large in other dimensions, there is a conspicuous deficiency in the region of Constructiveness. Among the negative instances are the casts and skulls of the New Hollanders, in the Phrenological Society's collection, which are remarkably narrow in the situation of this organ ; and their low condition in the constructive arts has been already mentioned. Contrasted with them are the Italians and French. An accurate and intelligent phrenologist authorizes me to state, that, during his travels in Italy, he observed a full development of Constructiveness to be a general feature in the Italian head ; and the same holds, but in a less degree, in the French. Both of these nations possess this organ, and constructive ingenuity, in a higher degree than the English.

These are positive facts in regard to the organ of Constructiveness. I shall now advert to a few circumstances illustrative of the existence of a talent for construction, as a distinct power of the mind apart from the general faculties of the understanding ; from which the reader may form an opinion of the extent to which the phrenological views agree or disagree with the common phenomena of human nature. This is the more necessary, as metaphysical philosophers in general do not admit a primitive faculty of Constructiveness, and hold the mechanical arts to be the result exclusively of reflection.

Among the lower animals, it is clear that the ability to construct is not in proportion to the endowment of under-


standing. The dog, horse, and elephant, which in sagacity approach very closely to the more imperfect specimens of the human race, never, in any circumstances, attempt a work of art. The bee, the beaver, and the swallow, on the contrary, with far less general intellect, rival the productions of man. Turning our attention to the human race, we observe, that while, among children of the same family, or the same school, some are fond of a variety of amusements unconnected with art, others constantly devote themselves, during their leisure hours, to designing with chalk, various objects on the boards of books, walls, and paper, or occupy themselves with fashioning in wax or clay, or clipping in paper, the figures of animals, trees, and men. Children of a very tender age have sometimes made models of a ship of war, which the greatest philosopher would in vain strive to imitate. The young Vaucanson had only seen a clock through the window of its case, when he constructed one in wood, with no other utensils than a bad knife. A gentleman with whom I was intimately acquainted constructed, at an early age, a mill for making pot-barley, and actually set it in operation by a small jet from the main stream of the Water of Leith. Lebrun drew designs with chalk at three years of age, and at twelve he made a portrait of his grandfather. Sir Christopher Wren, at thirteen, constructed an ingenious machine for representing the course of the planes. Michael Angelo, at sixteen, executed works which were compared with those of antiquity.l

The greater number of eminent artists have received no education capable of accounting for their talents ; but, on the contrary, have frequently been compelled to struggle against the greatest obstacles, and to endure the most distressing privations, in following out their natural inclinations.2 Other individuals, again, educated for the arts, and on whom every advantage has been lavished, have never sur-

1 Gall Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome v.

2 A striking case of this nature is reported in The Phrenological Journal
i. 509.

336 constructiveness.

passed mediocrity. Frequently, too, men whom, circumstances have prevented from devoting themselves to arts to which they were naturally inclined, have occupied themselves with mechanics as a pastime and amusement. An eminent Scotch barrister, in whom Constructiveness is largely developed, has informed me, that occasionally, in the very act of composing a written pleading on the most abstruse questions of law, vivid conceptions of particular pieces of mechanism, or of new applications of some mechanical principle, dart into his mind, and keep their place so as to interrupt the current of his voluntary thoughts until he has embodied them in a diagram or description, after which he is able to dismiss them, and proceed with his professional duties. Leopold I., Peter the Great, and Louis XVI. constructed locks. The organ of Constructiveness was largely developed in the late Lord President Blair of the Court of Session, as appears from a cast of his head, his statue, and also his portraits : and it is said that he had a private workshop at Avondale, in Linlithgowshire, in which he spent many hours during the vacations of the Court, constructing pieces of mechanism with his own hands. The predilection of such individuals for the practice of mechanical arts cannot reasonably be ascribed to want, or to their great intellectual faculties ; for innumerable objects, more directly fitted to gratify or relieve the understanding, must have presented themselves to their notice, had they not been led by a special liking to the course they followed, and felt themselves inspired by a particular talent for such avocations. Not only so, but examples of an opposite description are met with ; namely, of men of great depth and comprehensiveness of intellect, who are destitute of manual dexterity. Lucian and Socrates renounced sculpture, because they felt that they possessed no genius for it. M. Schurer, formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy at Strasburg, broke every article he touched. There are persons who can never learn to make a pen or sharpen a razor ; and Dr Gall mentions, that two of his friends, the one an excellent teacher, the other " grand ministre," were passionately fond of gardening, but



he could never teach them to engraft a tree. Montaigne says of himself-" I cannot handsomely fold up a letter, nor could ever make a pen, or carve at table worth a pin, nor saddle a horse."1 As a contrast to these, men of considerable mechanical dexterity are frequently found to be remarkably destitute of talent for every other pursuit, and to possess very limited understandings.

Cases of disease also tend to prove, that Constructiveness is a special faculty, and not the result merely of general intellect. Dr Rush mentions two cases in which a talent for design had unfolded itself during a fit of insanity ; and he adds, that there is no insane hospital in which examples are not found, of individuals who never shewed the least trace of mechanical talent previously to their loss of understanding ; but who have subsequently constructed the most curious machines, and even ships completely equipped.2 Foderé, in his Traité du Goitre et de la Cretinisme, p. 133, remarks, " That, by an inexplicable singularity, some of these individuals (Cretins), endowed with so weak minds, are born with a particular talent for copying paintings, for rhyming, or for music. I have known several who taught themselves to play passably on the organ and harpsichord ; others who understood, without ever having had a master, the repairing of watches, and the construction of some pieces of mechanism." He adds, that these powers could, not be attributed to the intellect, for the individuals in question not only could not read books which treated of the principles of mechanics, " mais ils étaient déroutés lorsqu'on en parlait, et ne se perectionnaient jamais."

In the lower animals. Nature has implanted a propensity to construct, but in them it is always specific ; while, in man, a similar tendency is found, but general in its application. For example, nature inspires the beaver not only with a de-

1 Essays, B. ii. ch. 17- Cotton's Transl.

s Rush's Medical Inquiries and Observations on the Diseases of the Mind. Philadelphia, 1812. P. 153.



sire to build, but also with an instinctive and unerring impulse, independent of acquired knowledge and experience, to construct a dwelling of a particular form ; and the power of the animal to build is confined entirely within the limited sphere of its intuitive inspiration. Man, on the other hand, has received from Nature a propensity to construct, but not a limited instinct to build a house or a ship, or to weave a coat or a vest, or, in short, to fashion any particular object. The beaver possesses no general reflecting powers to direct its propensity, and hence it was necessary to inspire it not only with a desire to build, but with a plan of architecture. To man, on the contrary, reflection, and the power of amassing knowledge, are given ; and the faculties of the understanding enable him to invent plans, and to employ his impulse to construct in a great variety of ways. In man, Constructiveness is essentially a power of representation. It enables him to embody in forms, the ideas perceived and conceptions engendered by his other faculties.

Intellect alone, with extreme deficiency of Constructiveness, will never enable an individual to become an expert handicraftsman, or artist, because in him the power of representation through the medium of forms will be feeble ; but, if the development of Constructiveness be considerable, and equal in two individuals, and the intellectual organs be large in the one and small in the other, the former will accomplish much higher designs in representation than the latter. The reason is this : The primitive talent for construction is the same in both ; but the one, by means of his larger intellect, is endowed with a wider range of perception of objects and of conception of ideas, and of their relations, furnishing to his constructive talent more ample materials for action, while the other, owing to the smallness of his intellect, is limited to a mere mechanical talent, never stretching beyond the imitation of objects that have fallen under his direct perception.

The word Constructiveness has been objected to as not sufficiently comprehensive. To construct is to take detached


materials and put them together, so as to form a single object out of the whole. Thus we may be correctly said to construct a house, a machine, or a ship. The faculty, however, goes farther than this ; it seems to be a tendency to fashion in general-in other words, to alter the shape or appearance of objects-whether by combining detached materials, or by chipping off fragments, or by drawing lines and laying on colours. It is not the province of this faculty to invent, but merely to fashion, or configurate, and thereby to represent the ideas formed by the other faculties.1 Invention is an act of the understanding alone ; so that we find ingenious inventors who are destitute of mechanical skill, and excellent handicraftsmen, without any power of invention. It is probable, however, that Constructiveness, when powerful, stimulates the understanding to invent what will give itself agreeable employment in the process of construction. When the organ of Weight is large, machinery is the department preferred.

Dr Gall mentions, that it is difficult to discover the position of this organ in some of the lower animals, on account of the different arrangement of the convolutions, their small size, and the total absence of several of those which are found in man. The organ of Tune in the lower creatures is situated towards the middle of the arch of the eyebrow, and that of Constructiveness lies a little behind it. In the hamster, marmot, and beaver, of whose crania he gives plates, it is easily recognised ; and at the part in question, the skulls of these animals bear a close resemblance to each other. In the beaver and other rodentia, the organ will be found immediately above and before the base of the zygomatic arch, and the greater the talent for construction the more this region of their head projects. The rabbit burrows under

' Mr Richard Edmonson of Manchester, in an essay, " On the Functions of the Organs called Weight and Constructivoness," published in the ninth volume of The Phrenological Journal, pp. 142, 208, and 624 considers the elementary function of the organ, as being to perceive " the degrees of force." See also vol. x., p. 160.

2 See Phrenological Journal, ii. 415 ; and iii 190,


ground, and the hare lies upon the surface ; yet their external members are the same. On comparing their skulls, this region will be found more developed in the rabbit than in the hare. The same difference is perceptible between the crania of birds which build nests, and those of such as do not build. Indeed the best way to become acquainted with the appearance of the organ, in the lower animals, is to compare the heads of animals of the same species which build, with those of such as do not manifest this instinct ; the hare, for example, with the rabbit, or birds which make nests with those which do not. Between the brains of animals of different species, it is impossible to make a very accurate comparison.

Additional cases and observations will be found in the Phrenological Journal, vol. x., pp. 214, 545, vol. xv. pp, 56, 117, 357.

The organ is regarded as established.


this genus of faculties embraces certain feelings which correspond to the "emotions" of the metaphysicians. They differ from intellectual perceptions, in being accompanied with a peculiar vividness, which every one understands, but which it is impossible to express by any verbal definition.1 They may be excited by the presentment of the external objects naturally related to them, as danger is to fear, and august appearance to reverence ;-or by the spontaneous activity of the organs. Dr Spurzheim has named these faculties Sentiments, because they produce an emotion or feeling of a certain kind, joined with a propensity to act ; but, as shewn in the Appendix No. II., the detail of his classification is here by no means accurate. Several of them are common to man and the lower animals ; others are peculiar to man. The former, styled the Inferior or Lower Sentiments, shall be first treated of.

1 Lectures by Dr Thomas Brown. Lecture 52.


Vol. 1: [front matter], Intro, Nervous system, Principles of Phrenology, Anatomy of the brain, Division of the faculties 1.Amativeness 2.Philoprogenitiveness 3.Concentrativeness 4.Adhesiveness 5.Combativeness 6.Destructiveness, Alimentiveness, Love of Life 7.Secretiveness 8.Acquisitiveness 9.Constructiveness 10.Self-Esteem 11.Love of Approbation 12.Cautiousness 13.Benevolence 14.Veneration 15.Firmness 16.Conscientiousness 17.Hope 18.Wonder 19.Ideality 20.Wit or Mirthfulness 21.Imitation.
Vol. 2: [front matter], external senses, 22.Individuality 23.Form 24.Size 25.Weight 26.Colouring 27.Locality 28.Number 29.Order 30.Eventuality 31.Time 32.Tune 33.Language 34.Comparison, General observations on the Perceptive Faculties, 35.Causality, Modes of actions of the faculties, National character & development of brain, On the importance of including development of brain as an element in statistical inquiries, Into the manifestations of the animal, moral, and intellectual faculties of man, Statistics of Insanity, Statistics of Crime, Comparative phrenology, Mesmeric phrenology, Objections to phrenology considered, Materialism, Effects of injuries of the brain, Conclusion, Appendices: No. I, II, III, IV, V, [Index], [Works of Combe].

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